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Open access

Nazli Khajehnasiri, Homayoun Khazali, Farzam Sheikhzadeh and Mahnaz Ghowsi

Abstract

Objective. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) circuitries are involved in the inhibition and stimulation of the appetite, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one-month lasting high-intensity exercise on the POMC mRNA and NPY mRNA expression in the above-mentioned brain structure and appetite and food intake levels.

Methods. Fourteen male Wistar rats (250±50 g) were used and kept in the well-controlled conditions (22±2 °C, 50±5% humidity, and 12 h dark/light cycle) with food and water ad libitum. The rats were divided into two groups (n=7): 1) control group (C, these rats served as controls) and 2) exercised group (RIE, these rats performed a high-intensity exercise for one month (5 days per week) 40 min daily with speed 35 m/min. The total exercise time was 60 min. The body weight and food intake were recorded continuously during the experiments.

Results. The results showed relative mRNA expression of POMC and NPY estimated in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. There were no significant differences in the NPY and POMC mRNAs expression levels and food intake between C and RIE groups.

Conclusions. The present data indicate that one-month regular intensive exercise did not alter the levels of NPY and POMC mRNAs expression (as two important factors in the regulation of appetite) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and food intake suggesting that this type of exercise itself is not an appropriate procedure for the body weight reduction.

Open access

Hisham El Falougy, Barbora Filova, Daniela Ostatnikova, Zuzana Bacova and Jan Bakos

Abstract

Current understanding of the neuroanatomical abnormalities in autism includes gross anatomical changes in several brain areas and microstructural alterations in neuronal cells as well. There are many controversies in the interpretation of the imaging data, evaluation of volume and size of particular brain areas, and their functional translation into a broad autism phenotype. Critical questions of neuronal pathology in autism include the concept of the reversible plasticity of morphological changes, volume alterations of brain areas, and both short- and long-term consequences of adverse events present during the brain development. At the cellular level, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is considered as one of the critical factors associated with the autism spectrum disorders. Alterations in the composition of the neuronal cytoskeleton, in particular abnormalities in the polymerization of actin filaments and their associated proteins underlie the functional consequences in behavior resulting in symptoms and clinical correlates of autism spectrum disorder. In the present review, a special attention is devoted to the role of oxytocin in experimental models of neurodevelopmental disorders manifesting alterations in neuronal morphology.

Open access

Camile Wunsch, Thais Fernanda Dornelles, Pricila Girardi, Marcelo Emilio Arndt, Julia Pasqualini Genro and Veronica Contini

Abstract

Objective. Genetic variants in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene have been described as the most noteworthy ones regarding the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) liability. This work is aimed to evaluate the association between rs12255372 and rs7903146 polymorphisms and T2DM in patients with cardiovascular disease (CAD) risk.

Methods. A sample of six hundred and forty-seven patients that underwent the coronary angiography in a Cardiac Catheterization Lab was evaluated. The patients were investigated for the presence of T2DM and coronary stenosis. The TCF7L2 polymorphisms were genotyped by real-time PCR and the haplotype analysis was performed with the MLOCUS software. All genetic tests were carried out by considering the haplotype combinations in patients divided into three groups: 0 – carrying none disease risk allele, 1 – carrying one or two risk alleles and 2 – carrying three or four risk alleles.

Results. No significant associations between TCF7L2 risk haplotypes and the presence of T2DM or CAD were detected.

Conclusions. Our results indicate that the TCF7L2 rs12255372 and rs7903146 polymorphisms do not influence T2DM in Brazilian patients with the high risk for CAD. Therefore, we assume that these variants may only be relevant for a specific subgroup of T2DM patients or some particular human population.

Open access

Dmytro O. Minchenko, Dariia O. Tsymbal, Vadim V. Davydov and Oleksandr H. Minchenko

Abstract

Objective. The development of obesity and its metabolic complications is associated with dys-regulation of various intrinsic mechanisms, which control basic metabolic processes via changes in the expression of numerous regulatory genes. The main goal of this work was to study the association between the expression of insulin-like growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2) and IGF-binding proteins and insulin resistance in obese adolescents for evaluation of possible contribution of these genes in development of insulin resistance.

Methods. The expression of IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBPs mRNA was measured in blood of obese adolescents with normal insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance in comparison with the normal (control) individuals.

Results. In the blood of obese adolescents with normal insulin sensitivity the expression of IGFBP4, IGFBP5 and HTRA1 genes was down-regulated, but IGFBP2 and IGFBP7 genes up-regulated as compared to control (normal) group. At the same time, no significant changes in IGF1 and IGF2 gene expressions in this group of obese adolescents were found. Insulin resistance in obese adolescents led to up-regulation of IGF2, IGFBP2, and IGFBP7 gene expressions as well as to down-regulation of the expression of IGF1, IGFBP5 and HTRA1 genes in the blood in comparison with the obese patients, which have normal insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, the level of IGFBP4 gene expression was similar in both groups of obese adolescents.

Conclusions. Results of this investigation provide evidence that insulin resistance in obese adolescents is associated with gene specific changes in the expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP2, IGFBP5, IGFBP7, and HTRA1 genes and these changes possibly contribute to the development of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance.

Open access

Hajar Oghbaei, Mohammad Reza Alipour, Gisou Mohaddes, Gholam Reza Hamidian and Rana Keyhanmanesh

Abstract

Objective. Diabetes induces sensory symptoms of neuropathy as positive (hyperalgesia), negative (hypoalgesia), or both.

Methods. In the present study, fifty male Wistar rats were allocated to five groups: control, control+nitrate, diabetes, diabetes+insulin, and diabetes+nitrate. Thirty days after diabetes confirmation, insulin (2–4 U/day) was injected subcutaneously in diabetes+insulin group and nitrate (100 mg/l) was added into drinking water of the control+nitrate and diabetes+nitrate groups for a period of 2 months. In order to assess the mechanical and thermal algesia, tail immersion, hot plate, and von Frey tests were performed. The serum insulin levels were determined with insulin ELISA Kit. Serum level of NOx was determined by the Griess method.

Results. Both thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) which was followed by a significant increase (p<0.01) in the thermal nociceptive threshold in the diabetes group. Chronic nitrate or insulin treatment led to a significant decrease (p<0.01) in blood glucose levels, as well as a significant (p<0.05) increase in the body weight and serum NOx. Moreover, nitrate treatment significantly increased serum insulin levels (p<0.001) compared to the other groups.

Conclusion. Chronic nitrate treatment modified the thermal and mechanical sensitivities in diabetic animals.

Open access

Heba A. Abdel-Hamid, Mona M. I. Abdalla, Nagwa M. Zenhom and Rasha F. Ahmed

Abstract

Objective. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of the PYY3–36, as a potential therapy for the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), induced by high fat diet (HFD) and an intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of streptozotocin (STZ) in albino rats.

Methods. Forty adult male albino Wistar rats were divided into: 1) control group (C, in which the rats were fed with a standard diet and received vehicle; 2) diabetic group (D, in which T2DM was induced by feeding the rats with HFD for four weeks followed by a single i.p. injection of 35 mg/kg STZ, this group was also allowed to have HFD till the end of the study; and 3) D+PYY3–36 group (in which the diabetic rats were treated with 50 µg/kg i.p. PYY3–36 twice a day for one week). Food intake, water intake, body weight (b.w.), visceral fat weight (VFW), liver glycogen content, serum levels of glucose, insulin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were measured. Homeostatic-model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was estimated. The gene expression of the hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and visceral nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were assessed by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

Results. The PYY3–36 administration to the diabetic group of rats significantly increased the serum insulin levels and liver glycogen content, decreased the body weight, VFW, food intake, water intake, serum levels of the glucose, IL-6, and HOMA-IR. It also decreased the expression of both the hypothalamic NPY and the visceral fat NF-κB.

Conclusion. With respect to the fact of improved insulin release and enhanced insulin sensitivity (an effect that may be mediated via suppressing accumulation of visceral fat and inflammatory markers), in the rats treated with PYY3–36, the PYY3–36 might be considered for the future as a promising therapeutic tool in T2DM.

Open access

Sankalp Yadav and Gautam Rawal

Abstract

The waterpipe tobacco smoking is an ancient form of smoking that is present in the society since centuries. The majority of consumers of this exotic activity are still unaware of the serious consequences that this type of smoking has on the health of the smoker. The paucity of data related to the prevalence and extent of this habit in the society is still not available. In this present short review, the authors try to highlight this serious health issue and suggest preventive measures.

Open access

Xiangbo Xu, Zhaohui Bai, Qingchun Zhao, Hongyu Li, Qiang Shi, Jiao Deng, Jingqiao Zhang, Xiaozhong Guo and Xingshun Qi

Abstract

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a potentially lethal syndrome, which is characterized by an acute deterioration of liver function in patients with chronic liver diseases. The present paper reported that an alcoholic cirrhotic patient with ACLF developed septic shock, hydrothorax, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, acute kidney injury, and acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding at the same hospitalization and was successfully rescued by pharmacotherapy alone without any invasive intervention.

Open access

Ningning Zhu, Dijiong Wu and Baodong Ye

Abstract

Aplastic anemia (AA) is a common hematologic disease that is characterized by hematopoietic failure of the bone marrow and pancytopenia of the peripheral blood, which can be divided into severe and non-severe aplastic ane-mia, or acute and chronic aplastic anemia according to the severity of the disease and the progress of the clinical course. During the past years, the advantages of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on the treatment of AA have been well clarified and its theory system has been improved as well. This review is mainly on representing the pathogenesis, therapeutic principle and method, research progression, and advantages of TCM on AA.

Open access

Sophie Samyn, Marielle Morissens, Ahmed Sanoussi and José Castro Rodriguez

Abstract

Reinterventions for surgery complications in adult patients with complex congenital heart disease are often difficult and have a high operative risk. If anatomically possible, a percutaneous approach is an alternative to surgery. We report the case of a 36 year-old patient who underwent surgery for a double outlet right ventricle with transposition of the great arteries and pulmonary stenosis. On the days following the surgery, the patient was hemodynamically unstable due to a stenosis of the intraventricular Dacron conduit between the left ventricle and the aorta. Because of the fragility of the patient, additional surgery was not possible and a percutaneous approach was preferred. A Cheatham Platinum stent mounted on a balloon-in-balloon catheter was implanted with success in the stenotic intraventricular Dacron conduit.