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Open access

Branko Angjelovski, Miroslav Radeski, Igor Djadjovski, Dine Mitrov, Jovan Bojkovski, Nikola Adamov and Toni Dovenski

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) and associated clinical signs in farmed sows in the Republic of Macedonia (RM) in the first 12-24 h postpartum. A total of 202 sows of different parity and different genetic lines from 5 pig farms in RM were included in the study. The sows and their litters were clinically examined 12-24 hours after farrowing. Postpartum dysgalactia syndrome was detected in 23.3% of all clinically examined sows, while prevalence between farms ranged from 14.8% to 38.1%. Altered piglet’s behavior was the most frequent clinical pattern observed in 68.1% of the PDS–affected (PDSA) sows. Regarding the clinical signs in PDSA sows detected among farms, significant differences were observed in the altered piglet’s behavior (p<0.05) and hypogalactia (p<0.05). Endometritis was more often detected in older sows (90%) compared to endometritis in younger animals (44.4%). In addition, fever was also more frequently diagnosed in higher parity (≥3 parity) sows (55.0%) in contrast to other PDSA sows (22.2%). This study has demonstrated the presence of PDS in farmed sows in RM. High frequency of altered piglet’s behavior found in this study could be an useful indicator for early detection of lactation problems in sows. Frequent pathological vaginal discharge in older sows indicates that endometritis plays an important role in the clinical manifestation of PDS. Further investigations should be conducted in order to identify specific risk factors associated with clinical PDS in farmed sows in RM.

Open access

Roberto Amerigo Papini and Ranieri Verin

Abstract

Giardia and Cryptosporidium are common protozoan parasites affecting several animal species and humans. The aim of this survey was to investigate, for the first time, their prevalence in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) faecal samples in central Italy. Seventy-one red foxes of different ages and sexes were examined for antigenic detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in fecal samples by means of a commercial rapid immunochromatographic test. The sample was randomly selected from foxes culled during a population control program. They were divided into groups based on sex and age (≤1-year-old and >1-year-old). Five (7%) and one (1.4%) out of 71 fecal samples were positive for the Giardia or Cryptosporidium antigens by immunochromatographic assay, respectively, and no coinfections were observed. The present prevalence rates of Giardia and Cryptosporidium antigens in faeces from V. vulpes suggest that this host species is likely to play only a limited role in the spread of the two protozoa in the study area. A concise review of the literature related to Giardia and Cryptosporidium in V. vulpes is presented.

Open access

Damir Suljević, Filip Filipić and Erna Islamagić

Abstract

Emperipolesis is considered a physiological phenomena often present in various pathophysiological conditions, but its etiology is still unknown. In this study, we analyzed the number of megakaryocytes and the percentage of emperipoletic cells in the sternal and femoral bone marrow of Wistar rats. Five types in the thrombopoiesis lineage (megakaryoblasts, promegakaryocytes and megakaryocytes - acidophilic, basophilic and thrombocytogenic) were determined. Except for basophilic megakaryocytes, significant differences were found for number of thrombopoietic cells in the sternal and femoral bone marrow. A larger number of thrombocytogenic megakaryocytes were present in the sternal bone marrow. Emperipoletic cells were significantly present in the femoral compared to the sternal bone marrow. Emperipolesis was typical for lymphocytes and neutrophils individually, while emperipolesis with two or more cells within thrombopoietic cell was also present (1-7 %) and significant differences between the sternal and femoral bone marrow were detected. Emperipolesis was found in all analysed rats and it most commonly occured within mature megakaryocytes and rarely megakaryoblasts, while it was not recorded in the promegakaryocytes. The high incidence of megakaryocytes with emperopolesis in rats could be a consequence of “normal” cell retention in the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes while passing blood cells to circulation or related to haematopoietic response due to high incidence of inbreeding.

Open access

Ksenija Ilievska, Branko Atanasov, Toni Dovenski, Ozren Smolac, Boris Stojanov and Plamen Trojachanec

Abstract

The serum concentration of certain acute phase proteins significantly increases during various pathological conditions in cattle. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of claw disorders etiology on the concentrations of two major acute phase proteins in dairy cattle: haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid protein A (SAA). Fifty dairy cows with claw pathology were included. Fourteen clinically healthy heifers served as controls. The animals were subdivided in 5 groups according to the pathological findings on their claws: 1. Heel horn erosion (HE), 2. Acute laminitis (AL), 3. Sole ulcer (SU), 4. Digital dermatitis (DD) and 5. White line separation (WLS). Hp and SAA concentrations were measured in serum samples using commercial ELISA kits. Higher concentrations of both Hp and SAA were found in the AL and SU groups (p<0.01) compared to the HE, DD and WLS and control groups. Dairy cows in the DD group had higher (p<0.05) Hp and SAA concentrations than the HE and WLS groups and the controls. The serum values between the HE, WLS and the control group did not differ significantly. The presented results indicate that the claw diseases are associated with a systemic acute phase response. Hp and SAA could be used as valuable biomarkers for early detection of claw diseases in dairy cows.

Open access

Przemysław Dębski, Ewelina Białas and Rafał Gnat

Abstract

Self-myofascial release (SMR) is a well-known and popular therapy. Its growing popularity is based on high effectiveness and availability. However, there is a lack of agreement about which parameters should be used to optimize the effects of the therapy. The purpose of this review is to critically select and assess current literature and ascertain the values of the follow­ing parameters: (1) therapy duration, (2) volume of applied pressure, (3) speed and (4) frequency of roll, (5) type of roller, (6) the number of treatment applications during one session, (7) the duration of intervals between applications that yield the best results in terms of soft tissue.

The authors launched their research in May 2018. The search strategy included the electronic databases EBSCOhost and PubMed. The following inclusion criteria were assessed:

- English language, high quality manuscripts (evaluation in PEDro scale)

- at least one of the groups using the foam roller, tennis ball or the stick to fascial release

- basic parameters of therapy described.A total 55 articles met the inclusion criteria. Patients can usually withstand a maximum tolerable pressure for 30-120 seconds, repeated 1-3 times, separated by 30 seconds of rest. The intensity of a single rolling movement should be moderate, and the movement should last about 3 seconds. Keeping the roller on particularly sensitive areas is recommended to release tension and enhance blood perfusion.Currently, there is no consensus on an optimal FR programme. However, there is a tendency to use SMR tools with a physiol­ogy-based method to enhance therapeutic efficiency.

Open access

Lucas de Lucena de Simões, Eline Autran de Lima, Gabriela Carvalho Jurema Santos, Tafnes Oliveira, Elenilson Maximino Bernardo, Luana Olegário, Erika Rabelo Fortes Siqueira and Matheus Santos de Sousa Fernandes

Abstract

Study aim: To verify the relationship between different durations of regular practice of physical activity in aspects related to the anthropometric profile and hepatic function of patients infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Material and methods: 125 patients (aged 55.2 ± 10.4 years) participated in the study. Clinical data were obtained through medical records available at the Pernambuco Liver Institute. Physical activity levels were obtained through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form to classify the patients according to the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Results: Significant differences were found in GGT 141 (28-378 U/L) and HDL 39 (27-56 mg/dL) respectively in insuffi­ciently active and physically active groups, AST 71 (26-268 U/L), ALT 83 (36-452 U/L), GGT 78 (3-532 U/L), alkaline phos­phatase 74 (47-302 mg/dL) and total bilirubin 0.7 (0.1-2.8 mg/dL) in insufficiently active and very physically active groups. Anthropometric data showed significant differences in chest (p < 0.01), abdomen (p < 0.02) and waist measurement (p < 0.01) between insufficiently active and very physically active groups.

Conclusion: Physical activity, when practiced regularly for more than 300 minutes per week, can improve the clinical and an­thropometric profile in patients infected with HCV.

Open access

Sema Can and Ayda Karaca

Abstract

Study aim: The purpose of this study was to examine smartphone-using university students’ musculoskeletal system pain complaints, duration of smartphone and computer usage, participation in moderate-vigorous physical activities (MVPA), and prolonged sitting time.

Material and methods: This study was conducted on Hitit University students (n = 387; 206 female, 181 male) in the province of Çorum. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), the Physical Activity Assessment Ques­tionnaire (PAAQ) (sports/exercise activities section), and a personal information form prepared by the researchers were used as data collection tools. Descriptive statistics and the t-test were used to determine differences between groups. The Pearson chi-square test was used to examine the relationship between categorical variables.

Results: It was observed that half of the participants with musculoskeletal system pain complaints (54.5%) feel the pain in all four areas (neck, shoulder, upper and lower back). There was no statistically significant relationship between physical activity intensity and pain complaint (p > 0.05). The students with musculoskeletal pain complaints spend more time on the smartphone and computer than students who do not have pain complaints (p < 0.05). During electronic device usage, the students who are in the low-intensity physical activity category spend more time sitting down than students in the moderate/vigorous intensity physical activity category (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: In consequence, information can be provided about the importance of reducing sitting time during smartphone use and increasing the duration of moderate/vigorous-intensity physical activity (PA) so awareness can be raised on the issue among university students.

Open access

Ebby Waqqash Mohamad Chan, Mohamad Shariff A. Hamid, Faridzal Harrymen Mohd Din, Rozali Ahmad, Ali Md Nadzalan and Eliza Hafiz

Abstract

Study aim: The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and explore possible factors associ­ated with LBP among Malaysian army personnel deployed in Klang Valley in the year 2018. Material and methods: A self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic data, occupational background, occupational exposure and LBP evaluation was used in this study. A total of 330 respondents participated in this study and 321 (97%) of them completed and returned the questionnaires. Results: One hundred and fifty-seven respondents complained of LBP, giving a prevalence of 48.9%. LBP was found to be associated with smoking status, history of LBP, history of accident, military rank, category of regiment, lifting weights, push­ing weights, pulling weights and job-related physical activity. Logistic regression analysis identified four associated risk fac­tors of LBP: history of accident (OR = 4.42, 95% 2.29-8.55), history of LBP (OR=1.92, 95% 1.11-3.31), combat regiment (OR = 1.97, 95% 1.14-3.42) and high job-related physical activity (OR = 2.35, 95% 1.31-4.20). Conclusion: Almost half of Malaysian army personnel stationed in Klang Valley reported LBP symptoms. Smoking status, history of LBP, history of accident, junior non-commissioned officers (NCOs), combat regiments, manual handling of objects and moderate/high job-related physical activity are associated with LBP, but there is no evidence of a temporal relationship in the current study. Further exploration with a longitudinal study is needed to identify a cause and effect relationship between occupational exposure and LBP among Malaysian army personnel.

Open access

Nazli Khajehnasiri, Homayoun Khazali, Farzam Sheikhzadeh and Mahnaz Ghowsi

Abstract

Objective. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) circuitries are involved in the inhibition and stimulation of the appetite, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one-month lasting high-intensity exercise on the POMC mRNA and NPY mRNA expression in the above-mentioned brain structure and appetite and food intake levels.

Methods. Fourteen male Wistar rats (250±50 g) were used and kept in the well-controlled conditions (22±2 °C, 50±5% humidity, and 12 h dark/light cycle) with food and water ad libitum. The rats were divided into two groups (n=7): 1) control group (C, these rats served as controls) and 2) exercised group (RIE, these rats performed a high-intensity exercise for one month (5 days per week) 40 min daily with speed 35 m/min. The total exercise time was 60 min. The body weight and food intake were recorded continuously during the experiments.

Results. The results showed relative mRNA expression of POMC and NPY estimated in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. There were no significant differences in the NPY and POMC mRNAs expression levels and food intake between C and RIE groups.

Conclusions. The present data indicate that one-month regular intensive exercise did not alter the levels of NPY and POMC mRNAs expression (as two important factors in the regulation of appetite) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and food intake suggesting that this type of exercise itself is not an appropriate procedure for the body weight reduction.

Open access

Hisham El Falougy, Barbora Filova, Daniela Ostatnikova, Zuzana Bacova and Jan Bakos

Abstract

Current understanding of the neuroanatomical abnormalities in autism includes gross anatomical changes in several brain areas and microstructural alterations in neuronal cells as well. There are many controversies in the interpretation of the imaging data, evaluation of volume and size of particular brain areas, and their functional translation into a broad autism phenotype. Critical questions of neuronal pathology in autism include the concept of the reversible plasticity of morphological changes, volume alterations of brain areas, and both short- and long-term consequences of adverse events present during the brain development. At the cellular level, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is considered as one of the critical factors associated with the autism spectrum disorders. Alterations in the composition of the neuronal cytoskeleton, in particular abnormalities in the polymerization of actin filaments and their associated proteins underlie the functional consequences in behavior resulting in symptoms and clinical correlates of autism spectrum disorder. In the present review, a special attention is devoted to the role of oxytocin in experimental models of neurodevelopmental disorders manifesting alterations in neuronal morphology.