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Paula Orzechowska, Janina Mołczanow and Michał Jankowski

Abstract

This paper investigates the interplay between the metrical structure and phonotactic complexity in English, a language with lexical stress and an elaborate inventory of consonant clusters. The analysis of a dictionary- and corpus-based list of polysyllabic words leads to two major observations. First, there is a tendency for onsetful syllables to attract stress, and for onsetless syllables to repel it. Second, the stressed syllable embraces a greater array of consonant clusters than unstressed syllables. Moreover, the farther form the main stress, the less likely the unstressed syllable is to contain a complex onset. This finding indicates that the ability of a position to license complex onsets is related to its distance from the prosodic head.

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Елена Васильевна Петрухина

Abstract

The author of the article applies synchronic and diachronic approach to describe consistent patterns in Russian word formation, when the facts in contemporary Russian are explained with due regard to the history of their development and formation. The research focuses on commonly used derivatives of the Church Slavic, which have not lost their sacred meaning despite the general secularization beyond religious discourse of evangelic lexis in Russian (as well as in other Slavic languages). The preservation of the sacred meaning is influenced by a specific process of differentiation between the sacred and the secular by means of word­building formants in cognate synonyms (for example, Рождество [‘Christmas’]/рождение [‘birth’]; житие [‘the life (of a saint)’]/житье [‘ordinary life’]; Воскресение [‘Resurrection’]/воскресенье [‘Sunday’]; искупить [‘to redeem’], Искупитель [‘the Redeemer’]/выкупить [‘to buy out’] etc.). The last section of the article considers the process of semantic specification in diachrony of originally synonymic cognate derivatives like живот [‘belly’], житие [‘the life (of a saint)’], жизнь [‘life’], which has led to a complete change of the semantics of the lexeme живот [‘belly’] (a gradual strengthening of its physical component has led to the modern meaning ‘belly, part of body’) and the prevalence of the word жизнь (with its Old Slavonic suffix ­знь). The latter, having absorbed the “life­related” semantic of lexemes живот ‘belly’ and житие ‘the life (of a saint)’, expresses all aspects of its understanding and interpretation by the contemporary language community. The author assumes that this process could also have been influenced by the general correlation between the Church Slavonicisms (both elevated and general denominations) and native Russian words (both concrete and ordinary denominations) in Russian. Word­building formants play a significant role in the differentiation of the sacred and the secular (and preserving the sacred) when the religious lexicon of the Church Slavonic origin enters the modern Russian language.

Open access

Elena Koriakowcewa

Abstract

The main objective of the study is to analyse and describe the structural organization and semantic and cognitive properties of new peripheral word­formation types of nomina actionis in the modern Russian and Polish languages. As resistant forms and organizing principles of the thinking process, the derivational categories of nomina actionis derivatives reproduce the properties and relations of being and knowledge in the most concentrated form. It increases the need for a comprehensive study of their structure and semantics. The article analyses the main approaches to the differentiation of the peripheral types of word­formation categories according to the nature of derivational semantics. The author justifies the nominative rendering of transposition and proves that it can contribute to distinguish a mixed type of word­formation categories.

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МАКСИМ А. ЮЮКИН

Abstract

The paper suggests a new classification of Slavic place names in the content plan (on the Old Russian annalistic material), based on the functional-structural approach developed in the works by V. Blanár and R. Šrámek. As the semantics of a proper name is formed both by its relationship with an object (the referential identification) and a hierarchical set of socially and pragmatically important features (the presuppositional identification), the paper distinguishes two modes of nomination, in accordance with the character of the relationship between a name and a referent, variability of which allows to discover and structurize onymic features. The direct nomination implies the designation of an object as such, on the assumption of its immanent feature characterizing it as a whole. The indirect mode denotes an object through its relationship with other reality. The classification is based on a strict dichotomic principle that allows to identify nominational features forming the basic content structure of the Slavic toponymy, and has a two-level ‒ nominational and semantic ‒ character that consequently reflects the double ‒ onomastic and linguistic ‒ status of a proper name.

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Зінаіда Андрэеўна Харытончык

Abstract

The paper is focused on semantic peculiarities, derivational restrictions and specific combinatory properties of the lexical units in gradual paradigms of глубокий [‘deep’] – неглубокий [‘not deep’] – мелкий [‘shallow’], широкий [‘wide’] – неширокий [‘not wide’] – узкий [‘narrow’] type in Russian. Among factors which determine the speakers’ pragmatic attitudes to the non­identity of gradual paradigm member properties, the hyperonymic status of adjectives – general designations of some parameter (глубокий, широкий), type and significance of semantic modifications (negation, insufficient degree, etc.) are thought to be the leading ones.

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Gabriela Tucan

Abstract

This article dwells on three of Hemingway’s canonical short stories, set in Italy. While not entirely autobiographical, they deal with Hemingway’s inner turmoil caused by his experience during World War I. From its inarticulate nature, pain half emerges into conversations between patients and physicians in A Very Short Story and In Another Country, but disappears into silence in A Way You’ll Never Be. The paper argues that the nature of physical and mental wounds, whether visible or concealed, fails objectification.

Open access

Diana Oțăt

Abstract

Although there has been harmonisation work on translator training, different programmes still show a different focus. The current paper frames a training project aiming at developing Master’s students specialised translation competence while working with bilingual corpora and exploiting technology. Legal translation corpus design, analysis tools and false-friend management are addressed so as to provide further insights into such recurrent matters.

Open access

Aleksandra Janowska

Abstract

The 16th century is the period of intensified processes of assimilation of foreign forms. This period provides insight into the situation of new borrowings which began to appear in the Polish language for the first time in such an extent. A considerable number of borrowed lexemes fosters the establishment of word­formative links between those lexemes in the Polish context. In this manner, the particular derivation­related nests of foreign origin were developed. In her article, the author emphasizes above all the role of verbal Latin and Greek borrowings in the organisation of the abovementioned nests, inquiring about the extent to which borrowings disrupt the existing word formation system, and about the extent to which these borrowings blend with the word formative “system”. As derivation­related bases, verbs are associated with two types of formations: with nominal and with verbal derivatives. The word­formative relations which emerged in the Polish language between a borrowed verb and a noun (which is in many cases borrowed as well) are well­documented already in the period in question (annotacyjaannotować). However, in this period, motivation­based relations between verbal borrowings were not developed, and thus foreign verbal formants did not separate out. The adaptation of these elements in the Polish language, as demonstrated by the further development in the diachronic perspective, is considerably impeded.

Open access

Monika Barancová, Jana Bírová and Zdena Kráľová

Abstract

This paper follows the tradition of sociolinguistic research of speech and it aims to examine the impact of some socio-demographic variables on the occurrence of the inter-lingual phenomena in Slovak utterances of Slovak immigrants in Spain. It is based on the theory of language contacts and focused on a synchronic aspect of the issue.

Open access

Marcelo Jacques de Moraes

Abstract

Starting from Walter Benjamin’s reflections on the work of Marcel Proust, we intend to go back to the way they allow us to think the relations between literature and translation, the “life connections” between them. We aim to speculate more specifically on the productive dimension of aging and oblivion taken as critical setbacks, that are natural to every work - original or translation-, and that predestine, necessarily and inexorably, within the “internal forest” of each of the languages involved and the border between them, to incompleteness and “continued life”.