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Nikita Probst, Tatiana Shkapenko, Arina Tkachenko and Alexey Chernyakov

Abstract

The article explores pragmasemantic aspects of the speech act of threat (SAT) in everyday conflict discourse, using examples from Russian colloquial speech. The authors analyze the impact of direct and indirect threats on the addressee from the point of view of the theory of speech acts, biopsychology, and physiology, which makes it possible to understand the nature of SATs and identify the key communicative and semantic factors of this type of speech acts.

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Oksana Halych

Abstract

The article focuses on the study of lexical means expressing the category of the Mystic in English Gothic narration of the 18th century. The mystic in early Gothic prose is viewed as a genre characteristic based on the atmosphere of escalating fear in the face of the unknown and connected with the motif of mystery, belief in the supernatural and irrationalism as a specific way of world perception. The research proceeds from the conceptual category as a universal notional constant to its linguistic interpretation in a systemic presentation within a synchronic approach.

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Zhaole Yang

Abstract

This paper examines the use of Mandarin ‘also’ in contexts which dōu can be used as well, e.g., in no matter and even contexts. I argue that there is a correlation between the possibility of using and the presence of a scalar reading as well as a reference to an extremity on the scale in question. The data we present show that is invariably associated with scalar readings: is always used in scalar contexts, and contexts that are not obviously scalar become so when is used. I also argue that a scalar interpretation of wh-elements in no matter contexts can be derived with the aid of negation or modals, thus accounting for the felicitousness of in such contexts. The paper ends with a short note on lián, hypothesizing that its function is to introduce the extreme of the scale. I also argue that the licensing condition of the additive/basic , i.e., the presence of alternatives in the background, also plays a role in the scalar use of .

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Marina Zheltukhina and Irina Zyubina

Abstract

The article focuses on individual speech behavior of Russian-speaking prosecutors in implicit pragmalinguistics in the 19th-20th centuries. Speech signals of corresponding implicit strategies (“Participation/Nonparticipation of members of communication in a speech event”, “Sure/Unsure speech behavior of an author”, “The sender’s formation of addressee’s attitude to a speech event by evaluation”) actualizing the senders’ speech behavior in Russian are established. We count the frequency of the planes’ actualisation, form and interpret the senders’ speech portraits, diagnose individual features of speech behavior of prosecutors of Russian-speaking linguocultures.

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Anna Prihodko and Oleksandra Prykhodchenko

Abstract

The Gothic worldview is understood as a manifestation of the environment’s reflection in peoples’ thoughts, which shows the perception of real and unreal / supernatural worlds in their symbiosis and determines the human’s role in it. LIFE and DEATH are universal concepts of culture and most fully they can be shown in the form of frame, the main structural elements of which are ACTANTS, PREDICATES, QUANTIFIERS, PLACE, and TIME.

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Maria Danilchuk

Abstract

The paper represents the results of a linguistic experiment aimed at establishing if the sounding of different fantasy brand names can cause the same associations in collective consciousness. The experiment drew upon crowdsourcing. The data received can be useful for marketing phonosemantics in relation to the methods used for the creation of new brand names.

Open access

Victor Junnan Pan

Abstract

Erlewine (2017) suggests that certain sentence-final particles (SFPs) in Mandarin Chinese such as “sentential le” and eryi are located lower than the C-domain, using a number of arguments relating to the scopal interaction of these SFPs, subjects, and other verb phrase (vP) level elements. The present paper proposes an alternative view of the phenomena considered by Erlewine (2017) and maintains the claim that sentential le and eryi are C-domain elements. First, I argue that shi ‘be’, in the negative form – bu shi ‘not be’ – should be analyzed as an independent verb, which takes a clausal complement headed by le or eryi. The apparent narrow scope of le and eryi is due to the biclausal analysis of the entire sentence. Second, the sentence-initial determiner phrase (DP) cannot be analyzed as the real subject of the verb shi ‘be’ but must be analyzed as the matrix topic of the entire sentence and, therefore, is higher than the complementizer phrase (CP) headed by le or eryi. This explains why sometimes le or eryi does not have scope over the subject. Third, the wh-subject cannot get an indefinite reading in a sentence with a final particle le because the ∃-closure triggered by le applies at the I′-level by excluding the subject systematically (Huang 1982). The ∃-quantifier, which is introduced in a position lower than the surface subject position, cannot bind the wh-subject as a variable. The position where ∃ is generated remains independent of whether the ∃-closure is triggered by low particles, such as le, or by high particles, such as the yes–no question particle ma. Therefore, the low peripheral particles le and eryi are still within the CP domain and thus higher than vP.

Open access

Hamzeh Moradi and Jianbo Chen

Abstract

The study presents a contrastive analysis of two distinct sound systems, namely, those of Persian and English. It provides a descriptive analysis and a contrastive study of consonants and vowels of these languages, expatiating on the similar and dissimilar features of the two sound systems. Dissimilarities are especially important since they may result in production of deviant sounds by foreign language learners.

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Nataliya Panasenko, Ľuboš Greguš and Inna Zabuzhanska

Abstract

War presented in mass media as a piece of hard news has three spaces: military, economic, and informational. From a linguistic point of view, conflict has two constituents: CONFLICT-STATE and CONFLICT-ACTION. The variety of conflict is confrontation, which includes physical collision, armed opposition, verbal collision, collision of outlooks and interests. Each conflict or confrontation has a cognitive script, on which confrontational substrategies are being built.

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Yangyu Sun

Abstract

This paper analyzes the syntactic properties of the “ba-construction” or “disposal form” in Mandarin Chinese under new theoretical frameworks. By introducing the event-decomposition method proposed by Ramchand (2008), it argues that the ba-construction conveys the causativity and the resultativity of the event at the same time, which can be shown from the syntactic representation. Then, this paper tests the position of ba, assuming that it is a functional head, and the result of the test indicates that ba is a voice head in the hierarchy of functional projections proposed by Cinque (1999, 2006). The final word order of a ba-construction can be derived by the argument movement of the direct object and by a head movement of ba or by the merge of ba at the head position of the higher functional head of a split VoiceP.