Childhood and adolescent obesity is a public health concern worldwide. However, little attention has been paid on status of overweight and body composition of Indian Bengali urban middle and high SES population. The objective was to determine the prevalence of overweight and body composition status by age and sex in children, adolescents and young adults. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 4194 unmarried school and college students (1999 males and 2195 females) aged 7–21 years belonging to the Bengali Hindu Population in Kolkata, India. The survey period was from 1999 to 2011. Anthropometry of participants were measured. Age and sex specific ≥85 percentile of body mass index (BMI) for children (<18 years of age) and BMI ≥23 kg/m2 (≥18 years of age) for adults were used to define overweight. Fat percent, upper arm fat area (UAFA) and upper arm muscle area (UAMA) were estimated. Simple linear regression was performed to check trend of changes with age. The overall prevalence of overweight was 14.8% in both sexes. Mean fat percent was higher in females than males (23.5% vs 13.5% respectively; p<0.001) and it increased by 0.18% (0.02) in males and 0.56% (0.02) in females per year (both p<0.001). UAMA gradually increased with age in both sexes and increasing rate per year was by 2.07 (0.04) cm2 in males and 1.19 (0.04) cm2 in females (both p<0.001). However, UAFA increased by 0.41 (0.03) cm2 and 0.90 (0.03) cm2 every year in males and females respectively (both p<0.001). Sum of biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailliac skinfolds increased by 1.66 (0.06) mm and 0.5 (0.07) mm per year in females and males respectively (both p<0.001). Overall prevalence of overweight was the same in both sexes but adipose tissue was higher and muscularly was lower in females than males.
Kidney stone disease is one of the most common urologic disorders worldwide. The incidence of kidney stones disease is increasing all over the world. It is a multifactorial disease accompanied by various factors. The dietary factor is one of the most important risk factors for the formation and recurrence of kidney stone disease. Formation and recurrence of kidney stone disease can be prevented by modifying our day to day dietary habits. Fewer intakes of animal protein, higher intake of fluid, higher intake of fruits, and higher intake of green leafy vegetables, which contain a low amount of oxalate, can prevent the formation of kidney stones and recurrence of kidney stones. From this review, it may be presumed that the higher prevalence rate of kidney stone disease in northeast India may be the dietary factors accompanied by environmental and climatic conditions of the region.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cigarette smoking and the condition of the teeth and periodontium and the oral health behavior of 18-year-olds. Cross-sectional studies on 1,611 18-year-olds from Poland were conducted in 2017. The questionnaire provided socio-economic data, information about health-related behavior (cigarette smoking and oral health behavior), and absence from school due to oral pain. The dentition status (DMFT and DMFS), periodontal status (gingival bleeding, depth of periodontal pockets, loss of attachment), and need for endodontic treatment or tooth extraction were clinically assessed. Cigarette smoking was reported by 25% of participants (15% reported every day smoking). Adolescents who smoked cigarettes regularly had a higher mean number of decayed teeth (2.40±3.21 vs. 1.95±2.66) and similar periodontal status. Cigarette smoking increased the risk of oral hygiene neglect (63% vs. 69%), dietary mistakes (25% vs. 13%), failure to make dental appointments (32% vs. 43%), occurrence of oral pain (28% vs. 27%), absence from school due to pain (13% vs. 6%), and the need for endodontic treatment or tooth extraction (11% vs. 5%). The socio-economic factors and sex of the subjects decreased the influence of smoking only on oral hygiene neglect. Cigarette smoking by adolescents seems to be an independent risk factor for serious dietary mistakes, failure to benefit from oral healthcare, and more dynamic damage of teeth, which lead to pain and even tooth loss. Therefore, these aspects should be included in the risk assessment of oral disease and incorporated into educational programs promoting a healthy lifestyle.
Ageing is one of the most complex and difficult problems for humans to face and for science to solve. Although human senescence was viewed as a passive and uncontrollable process of deterioration over time with little or no genetic regulation, the concept that ageing is caused by both genetic and environmental factors is now generally accepted, even though it remains difficult to distinguish between ageing sensu stricto and the effects of age-related diseases. Empirical data show that mechanisms of ageing are highly conserved during evolution. Moreover, it has been established that there are specific molecular ‘instructions’ for ageing, which suggests that a better understanding of the molecular biology of ageing will open new possibilities regarding future interventions. The complexity of ageing diminishes the possibility that any general theory will completely explain this metaphenomenon. Likewise, it is highly unlikely that any medication can stop or reverse human senescence. Nevertheless, ageing as a dynamic and malleable metaphenomenon can be modulated by a variety of influences. The concept of the shrinkage of the homeo-dynamic space with age, i.e. homeostenosis, is especially interesting and intriguing as it shows that novel therapeutic approaches and rational strategies can help delay the onset of the ageing-associated pathologies by enhancing the homeodynamic capabilities of the body. The aim of this article is to present current data from evolutionary and molecular gerontology and discuss them within the ambit of this review which is devoted to the dynamic, emergent and plastic nature of human ageing and implications for future interventions.
Under marginal nutritional conditions, growth in utero is related to subsequent growth and adult height. The aim of this research is to compare the young adult body size of women grouped by estimated duration of pregnancy relative to World War II. Subjects were 620 university students 18-25 years, for whom archival data for date of birth, age, height and weight were available; the BMI was calculated. Based on estimated time of pregnancy and birth relative to WWII, the women were grouped as follows: (1) pregnancy and birth before the war (n=203); (2) pregnancy before the war, birth during the war (n=54); (3) pregnancy and birth during the war (n=173); (4) pregnancy during the war, birth after the war (n=16); and (5) pregnancy and birth after the war (n=174). Heights of women born before and after WWII were significantly taller than heights of women born during the war. Though not significant, the height of women who were conceived before but born during the war was intermediate between those of women born before and during the war. The height of women conceived during the war but born after the war was similar to that of women conceived and born during the war. In contrast, BMIs and the distributions of women by weight status did not differ among the five pregnancy groups. The results suggested that heights of young adult women exposed in utero to the conditions of WWII (marginal nutritional status, maternal stress, among other factors) were shorter than women who were not exposed in utero to wartime conditions.
The indicators of perinatal outcome are birth weight and gestational age. The standard method of assessing the outcome is comparing the newborn’s birth weight with the reference system, presented in the form of percentile charts. Acceleration or delay in prenatal development, which are associated with environmental changes, stress the need to validate the developmental norms. The goal of this study is to evaluate the need to construct new and accurate reference standards. The study includes data of newborns from singleton pregnancies: 4919 born in 2000 and 3683 born in 2015. Study variables included gestational age, sex, and birth weight. Percentile values estimated for two groups of infants born in years separated by a 15-year period, born in 2000 and in 2015, were compared. Birth weight percentiles, from the 28th to the 42nd week of gestation, were calculated using the Lambda Mu Sigma method. Estimated values revealed the birth weight standards in different weeks of gestational age for both years: 2000 and 2015. Comparison among medians estimated for infants born in these years showed the existence of significant differences among boys in the 28th, 36th, and 39th weeks and among girls in the 34th and 41st weeks of gestational age. As the period between the two measurements involves several years, environmental changes during this time period might have significantly affected the course of pregnancy and thus the birth weight. Hence, there is a need to validate the developmental norms. The reference standards should be renewed, and must be done on a periodical basis.
In the literature there are no unequivocal assessments of the effect of paternal age on the risk of cerebral palsy (CP). The objective of the studies was the analysis of the influence of paternal age on this risk, considering all the important risk factors and division into singleton and twin, as well as term- and preterm-born infants. The inquiry included a group of 278 children with cerebral palsy from selected education-therapeutic institutions in Poland. The control group consisted of the data from medical records of 435 neonates born in God’s Mercy Hospital in Limanowa, Poland. The data were based on a questionnaire designed to obtain information which would make it possible to ascertain the probable etiological factors. Constructed models of logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. The results were presented as the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Though the estimation with a complex model of logistic regression showed no significant effect of paternal age on the occurrence of cerebral palsy, it confirmed it as a stronger predictor compared to maternal age. Disregarding paternal of age while considering maternal age and other risk factors may lead to a bias in the estimations of the risk cerebral palsy.
Genetic studies have presented increasing indications about the complexity of the interactions between Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and Denisovans, during Pleistocene. The results indicate potential replacement or admixture of the groups of hominins that lived in the same region at different times. Recently, the time of separation among these hominins in relation to the Last Common Ancestor – LCA has been reasonably well established. Events of mixing with emphasis on the Neanderthal gene flow into H. sapiens outside Africa, Denisovans into H. sapiens ancestors in Oceania and continental Asia, Neanderthals into Denisovans, as well as the origin of some phenotypic features in specific populations such as the color of the skin, eyes, hair and predisposition to develop certain kinds of diseases have also been found. The current information supports the existence of both replacement and interbreeding events, and indicates the need to revise the two main explanatory models, the Multiregional and the Out-of-Africa hypotheses, about the origin and evolution of H. sapiens and its co-relatives. There is definitely no longer the possibility of justifying only one model over the other. This paper aims to provide a brief review and update on the debate around this issue, considering the advances brought about by the recent genetic as well as morphological traits analyses.
This study assesses the association between angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) I/D (rs4646994) polymorphism and body composition parameters in essential hypertension (HT) and menopausal status in Slovak women. The entire study sample comprised 575 women in two groups: 255 with HT and 320 without. Body composition parameters were measured by bioelectric impedance analyzer and ACE I/D polymorphism genotypes were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Premenopausal HT women with ACE II genotype had significantly lower body cell mass (p=0.004), extra- and intracellular water (p=0.027; p=0.004), fat free mass and muscle mass (p=0.006; P = 0.003), fat free mass index (p=0.006) and body cell mass index (p=0.003) than their ID/DD counterparts. These associations were not determined in normotensive and/or postmenopausal women. This study confirmed that ACE I/D gene polymorphism affects body composition in HT premenopausal women.