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Open access

Mariela Patrignani, Guillermina A. Fagúndez and Cecilia E. Lupano

Abstract

Honey floral origin is determined by the harversting region, but anthropogenic factors as agriculture expansion might modify the environmental flora and consequently honey floral origin. Argentina is one of the most important honey producers worldwide which, since the 1990s, has undergone an important agriculture transformation by the adoption of transgenic crops like soybean (Glycine max). However, little is known about the effects of this anthropogenic activity on the floral origin of honey or the statistical tools that could be used to analyse it. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact that these environmental modifications have on the pollen spectrum of honey. In order to achieve this, thirty-two samples of blossom honey were collected from three different ecoregions of the Buenos Aires province: Parana Delta and Islands, Espinal, and Pampa, in two different years: 1999 and 2014. The pollen spectrum of honey samples was determined and the data obtained was analysed with multivariate statistical techniques. It could be concluded that the pollen composition of honeys from different ecoregions has significantly changed in the past years because of agriculture expansion and adaptation of transgenic crops (p=0.007). Honey samples harvested in 1999 were characterized by high values of Helianthus annuus, while in 2014 an important presence of Eryngium sp., Gleditsia triacanthos, Baccharis type, Trifolium sp. and Glycine max was observed. The present results show that honey palynological results and multivariate statistical analysis could be used as a preliminary attempt to evaluate environmental modifications.

Open access

Rogério M. D. O. Alves, Ana M. Waldschmidt, Joana F. Paixão, Daiane R. Santos and Carlos A. L. Carvalho

Abstract

The bees of the genus Cephalotrigona (locally known as “mombucas”) play a key role in natural environments but their bioecological features, required to design proper management and conservation strategies, are scarce in most species. Thus, the goal of the present study was to map the occurrence sites of C. capitata in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, and to provide useful information about nest architecture to their technical management. This species was recorded in fifteen municipalities in Bahia, totaling forty-one nests. The range of C. capitata varied from locations at sea level to seasonal ombrophilous forests at an altitude of 600m high. The nests were built in trees with a mean diameter of 19.8 ±3.0 cm. The nest architecture was similar to that reported in other stingless bee species, with a variation in analyzed parameters. The thermoregulation was more efficient in highly populated boxes. The present results can be used for the conservation and management of this species, which represents a potential source of income for local farmers.

Open access

Divya Sharma, Sapna Katna, Reena Sharma, Bachittar S. Rana, Harish K. Sharma, Vinay Bhardwaj and Avinash Chauhan

Abstract

Apis mellifera colonies were sampled for over twelve months to study the Nosema infection in different apiaries of Himachal Pradesh, India. We found that the infection incidence was highest in the winter season (48.40 %) followed by autumn and rainy months. The infection was diagnosed conventionally through the microscopic analysis detection of Nosema species spores. However, with the recent findings that both N. ceranae and N. apis affect western honey bees, more sensitive and species specific molecular techniques are required that reliably differentiate between species of microsporidia. Therefore, molecular studies were conducted to precisely differentiate between Nosema species infecting honeybee colonies in India. Species specific multiplex PCR amplification using previously reported primers derived from 16S rRNA fragments were performed in a single reaction mixture. A single diagnostic band size of only 143 bp for N. ceranae was observed in the agarose gel. Furthermore, a diagnostic band size of 252 bp was observed with primer NoS, thus reconfirming the presence of N. ceranae. This study appears to be the first to report the detect of N. ceranae species from India in samples of A. mellifera.

Open access

Mehmet M. Özcan, Fahad Aljuhaimi, Elfadıl E. Babiker, Nurhan Uslu, Durmuş Ali Ceylan, Kashif Ghafoor, Mustafa Mete Özcan, Nesim Dursun, Isam Mohamed Ahmed, Fadimu Gbemisola Jamiu and Omer N. Alsawmahi

Abstract

The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of locations on bioactive propertiest, phenolic compounds and mineral contents of bee pollens. The oil content of pollen grains changed between 3.50% (Alanya) and 6.85% (Russia-Perm Region). The highest total phenolic content (720 mg/100g) and antioxidant activity values (81.4%) were observed in pollens obtained from the Russia-Perm Region and Alanya districts, respectively. Additionally, the highest carotenoid was found in a pollen sample collected from Karaman (Sarıveliler) (98.6 mg/g). The major phenolic compounds were (+)-catechin (66.75-337.39 mg/100g) and quercetin (61.2-1221.7 mg/100g) in all pollen samples. The pollen samples were observed to be a significant source of potassium (3846-6287 mg/kg), phosphorus (2947-5010 mg/kg), calcium (1022-2424 mg/kg) and sulfur (1744-2397 mg/kg). All of the analysis results were significantly affected by supplying locations. The antioxidant activity values of pollens were found partly similar and varied depending on locations. The content of saturated fatty acid (palmitic) was high (20-30%) in the tested pollen samples but did not exceed the content of linoleic acid.

Open access

Paweł Piszcz and Bronisław K. Głód

Abstract

The antioxidative activities of honeys collected in Poland were screened. The total antioxidant potential (TAP) provides more information about the system than the determination of individual antioxidant. TAP is proportional to the sum of products of concentrations of all antioxidants in the sample and their antioxidant powers (rate constants). To measure, compare and correlate TAPs, we used techniques which we had recently elaborated (i) related to hydroxyl radicals, (ii) RP-HPLC measurements with amperometric detection and (iii) differential pulsed voltammetry (DPV). They were correlated with techniques already described in the literature (i) related to the DPPH radicals, (ii) the total content of phenolic compounds and (iii) color intensity. All assays revealed the following order of obtained TAP values: buckwheat > honeydew > linden > multi-flower> acacia honey. Correlations were found between results obtained using different techniques. There was also a significant correlation with the results obtained by authors using other measurement techniques. Differences in antioxidant properties among individual honeys are inversely proportional to the strength of the radicals in relation to which measurements were performed. This is due to the fact that strong radicals react not only with strong antioxidants but also with weak ones, which are much more common. The darker honeys were also observed to be characterized by higher TAP values.

Open access

Wiesława Młodawska, Patrycja Mrowiec, Beata Grabowska, Joanna Waliszewska, Joanna Kochan, Agnieszka Nowak, Anna Migdał, Wojciech Niżański, Sylwia Prochowska, Agnieszka Partyka, Marcin Pałys, Teresa Grega and Józef Skotnicki

Abstract

Dermal fibroblasts are commonly used as donors of genetic material for somatic cell nuclear transfer in mammals. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a cytokine that regulates proliferation and differentiation of different cell types. The study was aimed at optimizing the cell culture protocol for cat dermal fibroblasts by assessing the influence of culture media and different doses of bFGF on proliferation of fibroblasts and their viability in terms of cell banking and somatic cloning of felids. In Experiment I, skin biopsies of domestic cats were cultured in DMEM (D) and/or DMEM/F12 (F), both supplemented with 5 ng bFGF/ml (D-5, F-5, respectively). After the primary culture reached ~80% of confluency, the cells were passaged (3-4 times) and cultured in media with (D-5, F-5) or without (D-0, F-0) bFGF. To determine the optimal doses of bFGF, in Experiment II, secondary fibroblasts were cultured in DMEM with 0 (D-0), 2.5 (D-2.5), 5 (D-5) or 10 (D-10) ng bFGF/ml. The results showed that in D-5 the cells proliferated faster than in D-0, F-5 and F-0. Due to their poor proliferation, passages IV were not performed for cells cultured in F-0. In experiment II, a dose-dependent effect of bFGF on proliferation of cat dermal fibroblasts was found. In D-5 and D-10, the cells exhibited higher (P<0.05) proliferation compared with D-0. In D-2.5 the cells showed a tendency to proliferate slower than in D-5 and D-10 and at the same faster than in D-0. In conclusion. DMEM supplemented with bFGF provides better proliferation of domestic cat dermal fibroblasts culture than DMEM/F12. Supplementation of culture medium with bFGF has a beneficial effect on cat dermal fibroblast proliferation and could be recommended for addition to culture media.

Open access

Hanna Jankowiak, Wojciech Kapelański and Maria Bocian

Abstract

Reproduction is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of animal production. Within the scope of uterine capacity and other morphometric parameters, the objective of this study was to evaluate the size variability of uterus dissected from prepubertal gilts. The research was conducted on 100 PLW gilts and 100 PL gilts at a pig testing station. After slaughter, the reproductive tract was dissected, and each element was measured and weighed. The obtained results were combined and analyzed in three groups differentiated by uterine capacity: I, II and III. Group I consisted of gilts with a uterine capacity below 115 cm3 (n=69); group II comprised gilts with a uterine capacity between 115 and 175 cm3 (n=85); uterine capacity in group III was above 175 cm3 (n=46). Ontogenesis of the reproductive tract showed great variability with respect to the uterine capacity of gilts of both breeds. Uterine weight with and without ligament was different between the analyzed groups of PLW gilts (P<0.01), and also between the groups of PL gilts (P<0.01; P<0.05). The uterine horns of the PLW gilts in group I were slightly longer than in the PL gilts (90.76 cm vs. 84.20 cm; P<0.05). A slightly higher variability of uterine capacity was observed with respect to the PLW gilts (80.92 cm3 to 243.13 cm3), as compared with the PL gilts (92.61 cm3 to 235.23 cm3). The determined uterine capacity was significantly correlated with all parameters of uterine size (P<0.01), apart from the length of the uterus and cervix in PLW gilts. The proportion between the uterine weight and the length of its horns, which characterizes the thickness of uterine walls, was significantly correlated with the length of uterine horns only in PL gilts (r=0.382**). This study may be used to forecast the potential fertility of related females (littermate gilts and their daughters); it may also be used in sow selection for litter size.

Open access

Agnieszka Ludwiczak and Marek Stanisz

Abstract

The aim of this review was to define the most important factors that affect the reproductive success of farmed mink. The biology of mink reproduction is unique when comparing it with other farmed fur animals. The article emphasizes the importance of optimal environmental conditions in prevention of reproductive disorders. The novel attempts to the mating schedule, optimal diet and body condition of dams, kits transfer between dams, these are only examples of advantageous procedures used in mink farming to increase the effectiveness of reproduction.

Open access

Iwona Sembratowicz and Katarzyna Ognik

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) for chickens by investigating its effect on their growth, hematological parameters, markers of oxidative stress, and indicators of liver and kidney function. The experiment was carried out on 54 chickens assigned to 3 experimental groups of 18 birds each. The control group did not receive gold nanoparticles. The birds in group Au-NPs2.0 received gold nanoparticles in a tube into a crop at a rate 2.0 mg/kg body weight/day, while the birds in AuNPs5.0 group at a rate 5.0 mg/kg body weight/day. The blood for analysis was collected after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of Au-NPs application. The obtained results indicate that short-term (7-14 days) exposure to lower dose (2.0 mg/kg b.w./day) of AuNPs had no toxic impact on chickens, but the extension of the duration time caused toxicological effects evidenced by growth inhibition as well as induction of oxidative stress and liver injury. The higher dose of AuNPs (5.0 mg/kg b.w./day) exerted toxic effects already after 7-14 days of supplementation.

Open access

Katarzyna Abramowicz, Magdalena Krauze and Katarzyna Ognik

Abstract

The aim of the study was to select a dosage and time of administration of a probiotic preparation containing live cultures of Bacillus subtilis and enriched with choline to obtain the most beneficial effect on the antioxidant and biochemical status of the blood of chickens and to improve their growth performance. A total of 980 one-day-old Ross 308 chickens (7 replications of 20 individuals each) reared until their 42nd day of life were used in the experiment. The chickens were divided into seven groups of 140 each. The control group did not receive any additives. The T1 groups received a probiotic in the amount of 0.05 g/L (T1-0.05); 0.1 g/l (T1-0.1) or 0.25 g/l (T1-0.25) throughout the rearing period, while the T2 groups received the same doses of the probiotic, but only during days 1–7, 15–21 and 29–35 of rearing. Administration of a preparation containing Bacillus subtilis bacteria was shown to increase the level of ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), vitamin C, and uric acid (UA), while reducing the level of peroxides (LOOH), malondialdehyde (MDA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), the share of and low-density fractions of cholesterol (LDL), and activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), asparagine aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and creatinine kinase (CK). An increase in the high-density fractions of cholesterol (HDL) fraction of cholesterol and a decrease in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were noted as well. The results of the study indicate that 0.25 g/l of the probiotic, administered continuously (T1), clearly has the most beneficial effect in terms of enhancing antioxidant potential and reducing the level of stress indicators, without disturbing overall metabolism in the body. During the 42 days of rearing each chicken received 33.3 CFUx1011 Bacillus subtilis from the probiotic preparation. The body weight gain of chickens from T1-0.1, T1-0.2 and T2-0.25 groups was higher (p≤0.027) and more favorable comparing to G-C group.