Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a rare, under-explored lethal viral infection of cattle with gammaherpesvirus aetiological agents. Most often, the disease occurs on farms where cattle and sheep are kept together. However, other trigger mechanisms and environmental factors contribute. This study investigates the causation of MCF.
Material and Methods
An outbreak of MCF occurred in June - August 2017 in Kharchev village in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia. In this paper, we provide epidemiological (sanitary status of pastures, watering places, and premises) and weather data during the outbreak, and descriptions of the clinical signs and post-mortem changes in cattle. The virus was detected and isolated from pathological material samples and identified by molecular methods.
Extreme weather conditions, mixed-herd cattle and sheep farming, and unsatisfactory feed quality contributed to the outbreak. A virus related to herpesvirus OvHV2 was isolated and typed (MCF/Irkutsk/2017). Phylogenetic analysis showed its close genetic relationship to isolates from cattle and sheep in Germany, USA, and the Netherlands.
Sporadic outbreaks of MCF caused by biotic and abiotic factors together are typical for the Russian Federation, and the Irkutsk outbreak epitomised this. Temperature anomalies caused pasture depletion, resulting in feed and water deficiency for grazing animals and dehydration and acidosis. Heat stress in animals ultimately led to the occurrence of MCF in the herd.
Cysticercosis caused by the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena is economically the most important endemic parasitic disease in Iraq. Few data are available relating to the genetic divergence of this helminth. This study aimed to molecularly characterise Cysticercus tenuicollis isolates from sheep in Sulaymaniyah province, Iraq.
Material and Methods
DNA extraction and amplification of specimens of C. tenuicollis from 46 sheep were conducted by PCR for the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. The 19 amplicons were subjected to purification and partial sequencing.
Five 12S rRNA nucleotide sequence haplotypes were found. The pairwise nucleotide difference between haplotypes of 12S rRNA gene ranged from 0.2% to 0.7%. Four out of the five haplotypes of C. tenuicollis contained one to two base mutations and were discovered in Iraq for the first time, and this may be a unique mutation globally which has not been recorded previously. Three newly recorded haplotypes contained only one single mutation, and the other one contained two mutations. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolated strains were closely related to Iranian sheep isolates.
Four new strains of T. hydatigena were discovered for the first time in the study area.
The plate counting method widely used at present to discern viable from non-viable Brucella in the host or cell is time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a rapid, simple method for detecting and counting viable Brucella organisms.
Material and Methods
Using propidium monoazide (PMA) to inhibit amplification of DNA from dead Brucella, a novel, rapid PMA-quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) detection method for counting viable Brucella was established. The standard recombinant plasmid with the target BCSP31 gene fragment inserted was constructed for drawing a standard curve. The reaction conditions were optimised, and the sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability were analysed.
The optimal exposure time and working concentration of PMA were 10 min and 15 μg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient (R2) of the standard curve was 0.999. The sensitivity of the method was 103 CFU/mL, moreover, its specificity and repeatability also met the requirements. The concentration of B. suis measured by the PMA-qPCR did not differ significantly from that measured by the plate counting method, and the concentrations of viable bacteria in infected cells determined by the two methods were of the same order of magnitude.
In this study, a rapid and simple PMA-qPCR counting method for viable Brucella was established, which will facilitate related research.
Salmonellosis is a zoonotic disease, and Salmonella spp. can sometimes be found in dogs and cats, posing a risk to human health. In this study, the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of faecal Salmonella were investigated in pet dogs and cats in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.
Material and Methods
Faecal samples from 243 dogs and 113 cats, at seven pet clinics, were tested between March 2018 and May 2019. Each Salmonella isolate was characterised using serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility tests.
The prevalence of Salmonella was 9.47% in dogs and 1.77% in cats. Among the 25 isolates, eight serotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica were detected, S. Kentucky (n = 11), S. Indiana (n = 5), and S. Typhimurium (n = 4) predominating. S. Derby, S. Toucra, S. Sandiego, S. Newport, and S. Saintpaul all occurred singly. The 23 Salmonella strains found in dogs were from seven different serovars, while the two strains in cats were from two. The highest resistance rates were found for tetracycline (92%), azithromycin (88%), cefazolin (84%), nalidixic acid (80%), ampicillin (80%), ceftriaxone (80%), and streptomycin (76%). Resistance to three or more antimicrobial agents was detected in 24 (96%) isolates. Most of the S. Kentucky and S. Indiana isolates were multi-drug resistant to more than 11 agents.
The carriage rate was far higher in dogs than in cats from Xuzhou. Some isolated strains were highly resistant to antimicrobials used to treat infections in humans and pets, which may raise the risk of humans being infected with multi-drug resistant Salmonella via close contact with pets.
Mobile phones (MP) and other electronic and communication devices that are used daily expose users to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and contribute to an increasing incidence of neurological disorders. Brain tissue is the closest organ to the MP as it operates, thus the influence of MP radiation on brain tissue is of particular concern, although research is still inconclusive. The present study investigated the possible effect of an EMF (1,350–1,375 megahertz (MHz)) from an MP on morphological and histopathological profiles in the mouse brain.
Material and methods
Healthy BALB/c mice were assigned to three equal groups (a control and two experimental groups, n = 10 each). Experimental mice were exposed to EMFs continuously for 72 h, those of experimental group I to a 1,350 MHz field at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg, and group II to a 1,375 MHz field EMF at an SAR of 4.0 W/kg. Brain segmentation and histopathological analysis were applied to detect changes in the morphometric parameters of the brain lobes and identify pathological lesions, respectively.
Histopathology results revealed shrinkage of pyramidal neurons, presence of mild perivascular and perineural oedema, and some vacuolation of neurons and glial cells derived from mouse great hemispheres. The lesions also included reduction of Purkinje cells, vacuolisation of neurons and glial cells, and interstitial oedema in the cerebellum.
MP distance of 3 cm from the cage may induce appreciable morphological changes in mouse brain structures; therefore, more comprehensive research is essential for assessment of safe distance. These pronounced effects may interfere with the results of laboratory tests on murine experimental models in veterinary or biomedical research.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in fast activation of the immune response to a variety of pathogens, including parasites. In this study, we focused on TLR2, because this receptor is one of the best known and most frequently analysed members of the TLR family. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Trichinella spiralis on expression of TLR2 during the intestinal stage of infection.
Material and Methods
The experimental material consisted of isolates prepared from the intestines (jejunum and colon) of BALB/c mice infected with T. spiralis taken at 4, 8, and 16 days post infection.
Our results based on quantitative real-time PCR showed that the mRNA level for TLR2 was statistically significantly higher in the jejuna of mice infected with T. spiralis than in this tissue of uninfected mice. In addition, the presence of TLR2 protein in the intestinal phase of trichinellosis was confirmed by a strong positive immunohistochemical reaction.
Our results indicate that infection with T. spiralis changes the expression of TLR2 in the small intestine of the mouse host and suggest a contribution of these receptors to the host defence mechanisms during experimental trichinellosis.
Differing conditions in captive breeding and in the wild have impact on the mineral profile of the pheasant carcass and its heavy metal contents. This may be an indicator of environmental contamination. The study evaluated the nutritional composition and selected macro- and trace element contents (heavy metals in particular) in usable sections of pheasant breast and thigh muscles originating from captive breeding and wild birds.
Material and Methods
The tests were performed on the breast and thigh muscles of 20 wild and 20 farm bred birds from around Lublin, Poland, with equal sex representation. The nutrient and lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel contents were determined using inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
The farmed pheasants had a higher proportion of breast muscle. The thigh muscles of all birds had a higher fat content than the breast muscles (5.1 g vs. 3.4 g per kg of natural weight). The macroelement level depended on the muscle type and bird origin. The trace element content also did and gender dependence was also evident. The wild birds contained more cadmium in the breast muscles and lead in both muscles than the farm-raised ones.
The high quality and usefulness of wild and farmed pheasant meat is confirmed. It has advantageous macro- and trace element contents and permissible heavy metal contents except for lead in wild birds. The heavy metal level can be a bioindicator of their environmental occurrence. In wild birds, the lead level may also reflect birdshot remnants.
The increasing resistance against classical antibiotic treatment forces the researchers to develop novel non-toxic antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial properties of seven different porphyrins having distinctive hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity: P1 meso-tetra(4-methoxy-phenyl)porphyrin, P2 Zn(II)-meso-5,10,15,20-tetrapyridylporphyrin, P3 meso-tetra(p-tolyl)porphyrin, P4 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin; P5 (5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphinato) dichlorophosphorus(V) chloride, P6 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin-Zn(II) tetrachloride, P7 Zn(II)-5,10,15,20-meso-tetrakis-(4-aminophenyl)porphyrin. The meso-porphyrin derivatives were screened for their antimicrobial activity against six reference strains: Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The antimicrobial activity of these samples was evaluated by the agar disk diffusion method and dilution method, with the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). The most significant result is provided by the water-soluble P5 manifesting an obvious antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes. On the other hand, P6 is a moderately active derivative against Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli and P7 presents moderate activity against Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. All the tested porphyrin bases, presenting hydrophobic character, have no antimicrobial activity under the investigated conditions. The common characteristics of the porphyrins that act as promising antimicrobial agents in the non-irradiated methods are: the cationic nature, the increased hydrophilicity and the presence of both amino functional groups grafted on the porphyrin ring and the coordination with Zn or phosphorus in the inner core.
Aim: We aimed to examine the association between several circulating bone turnover markers [ osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), beta-CrossLaps (β-CTx)], hip and spine bone mineral density (BMD) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) in patients with chondrocalcinosis (CC).
Methods: Thirty-six patients with CC and thirty-seven controls were consecutively enrolled in this pilot case-control, cross-sectional study. The following parameters were assessed: serum levels of OC, OPG and β-CTx by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); hip and spine BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and AAC score by lateral radiography.
Results: Patients with CC had higher levels of serum bone turnover markers and AAC score than the control group: OC [6.5 (3.5-9.9) vs 4.5 (2.6-7.2) ng/ml; p=0.05], OPG [(7.7 (6.2-9.4) vs 6.5 (5.5-8.12) pmol/ml; p=0.02], β-CTx [6078 (5870-6171) vs 5851 (5465-6109) pg/ml; p=0.02] and AAC score (3.6±6.2 vs 0.5±2; p=0.006). Conversely, even if statistical significance was not reached, hip and spine BMD was lower in patients with CC. Additionally, we found a positive correlation between OPG and AAC, but also between OPG and osteoporosis in patients with CC.
Conclusion: Patients with CC are characterized by higher circulating OC, OPG and β-CTx. The presence of AAC was more common in patients with CC, being only associated with serum OPG.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common hematological malignancy at pediatric age. Cardiotoxicity holds the first place among the causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Anthracyclines are cytostatic drugs frequently associated with cardiotoxicity. Early diagnosis of cardiac impairment during the treatment of pediatric patients is extremely important, both for modulating future chemotherapy and for administering cardioprotective agents. Long term monitoring after chemotherapy helps to identify the risk of late cardiotoxicity among cancer survivors. There are several biomarkers, already in use or still under study, which may represent an operator-independent alternative for echocardiography in the diagnosis of cardiotoxicity. In case of cardiac damage, the clinician has options for treating or limiting the progression, either with the use of already approved agents, such as Dexrazoxane, or by administrating other cardioprotective drugs. International experts are still attempting to establish the best algorithm for early detection of cardiotoxicity, as well as the most efficient treatment plan in case of already existing myocardial damage in these patients. We present a review on treatment-related cardiotoxicity, including mechanisms of development, useful biomarkers and treatment options, after carefully analyzing specialty literature.