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Wiesława Młodawska, Patrycja Mrowiec, Beata Grabowska, Joanna Waliszewska, Joanna Kochan, Agnieszka Nowak, Anna Migdał, Wojciech Niżański, Sylwia Prochowska, Agnieszka Partyka, Marcin Pałys, Teresa Grega and Józef Skotnicki

Abstract

Dermal fibroblasts are commonly used as donors of genetic material for somatic cell nuclear transfer in mammals. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a cytokine that regulates proliferation and differentiation of different cell types. The study was aimed at optimizing the cell culture protocol for cat dermal fibroblasts by assessing the influence of culture media and different doses of bFGF on proliferation of fibroblasts and their viability in terms of cell banking and somatic cloning of felids. In Experiment I, skin biopsies of domestic cats were cultured in DMEM (D) and/or DMEM/F12 (F), both supplemented with 5 ng bFGF/ml (D-5, F-5, respectively). After the primary culture reached ~80% of confluency, the cells were passaged (3-4 times) and cultured in media with (D-5, F-5) or without (D-0, F-0) bFGF. To determine the optimal doses of bFGF, in Experiment II, secondary fibroblasts were cultured in DMEM with 0 (D-0), 2.5 (D-2.5), 5 (D-5) or 10 (D-10) ng bFGF/ml. The results showed that in D-5 the cells proliferated faster than in D-0, F-5 and F-0. Due to their poor proliferation, passages IV were not performed for cells cultured in F-0. In experiment II, a dose-dependent effect of bFGF on proliferation of cat dermal fibroblasts was found. In D-5 and D-10, the cells exhibited higher (P<0.05) proliferation compared with D-0. In D-2.5 the cells showed a tendency to proliferate slower than in D-5 and D-10 and at the same faster than in D-0. In conclusion. DMEM supplemented with bFGF provides better proliferation of domestic cat dermal fibroblasts culture than DMEM/F12. Supplementation of culture medium with bFGF has a beneficial effect on cat dermal fibroblast proliferation and could be recommended for addition to culture media.

Open access

Hanna Jankowiak, Wojciech Kapelański and Maria Bocian

Abstract

Reproduction is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of animal production. Within the scope of uterine capacity and other morphometric parameters, the objective of this study was to evaluate the size variability of uterus dissected from prepubertal gilts. The research was conducted on 100 PLW gilts and 100 PL gilts at a pig testing station. After slaughter, the reproductive tract was dissected, and each element was measured and weighed. The obtained results were combined and analyzed in three groups differentiated by uterine capacity: I, II and III. Group I consisted of gilts with a uterine capacity below 115 cm3 (n=69); group II comprised gilts with a uterine capacity between 115 and 175 cm3 (n=85); uterine capacity in group III was above 175 cm3 (n=46). Ontogenesis of the reproductive tract showed great variability with respect to the uterine capacity of gilts of both breeds. Uterine weight with and without ligament was different between the analyzed groups of PLW gilts (P<0.01), and also between the groups of PL gilts (P<0.01; P<0.05). The uterine horns of the PLW gilts in group I were slightly longer than in the PL gilts (90.76 cm vs. 84.20 cm; P<0.05). A slightly higher variability of uterine capacity was observed with respect to the PLW gilts (80.92 cm3 to 243.13 cm3), as compared with the PL gilts (92.61 cm3 to 235.23 cm3). The determined uterine capacity was significantly correlated with all parameters of uterine size (P<0.01), apart from the length of the uterus and cervix in PLW gilts. The proportion between the uterine weight and the length of its horns, which characterizes the thickness of uterine walls, was significantly correlated with the length of uterine horns only in PL gilts (r=0.382**). This study may be used to forecast the potential fertility of related females (littermate gilts and their daughters); it may also be used in sow selection for litter size.

Open access

Agnieszka Ludwiczak and Marek Stanisz

Abstract

The aim of this review was to define the most important factors that affect the reproductive success of farmed mink. The biology of mink reproduction is unique when comparing it with other farmed fur animals. The article emphasizes the importance of optimal environmental conditions in prevention of reproductive disorders. The novel attempts to the mating schedule, optimal diet and body condition of dams, kits transfer between dams, these are only examples of advantageous procedures used in mink farming to increase the effectiveness of reproduction.

Open access

Iwona Sembratowicz and Katarzyna Ognik

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) for chickens by investigating its effect on their growth, hematological parameters, markers of oxidative stress, and indicators of liver and kidney function. The experiment was carried out on 54 chickens assigned to 3 experimental groups of 18 birds each. The control group did not receive gold nanoparticles. The birds in group Au-NPs2.0 received gold nanoparticles in a tube into a crop at a rate 2.0 mg/kg body weight/day, while the birds in AuNPs5.0 group at a rate 5.0 mg/kg body weight/day. The blood for analysis was collected after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of Au-NPs application. The obtained results indicate that short-term (7-14 days) exposure to lower dose (2.0 mg/kg b.w./day) of AuNPs had no toxic impact on chickens, but the extension of the duration time caused toxicological effects evidenced by growth inhibition as well as induction of oxidative stress and liver injury. The higher dose of AuNPs (5.0 mg/kg b.w./day) exerted toxic effects already after 7-14 days of supplementation.

Open access

Katarzyna Abramowicz, Magdalena Krauze and Katarzyna Ognik

Abstract

The aim of the study was to select a dosage and time of administration of a probiotic preparation containing live cultures of Bacillus subtilis and enriched with choline to obtain the most beneficial effect on the antioxidant and biochemical status of the blood of chickens and to improve their growth performance. A total of 980 one-day-old Ross 308 chickens (7 replications of 20 individuals each) reared until their 42nd day of life were used in the experiment. The chickens were divided into seven groups of 140 each. The control group did not receive any additives. The T1 groups received a probiotic in the amount of 0.05 g/L (T1-0.05); 0.1 g/l (T1-0.1) or 0.25 g/l (T1-0.25) throughout the rearing period, while the T2 groups received the same doses of the probiotic, but only during days 1–7, 15–21 and 29–35 of rearing. Administration of a preparation containing Bacillus subtilis bacteria was shown to increase the level of ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), vitamin C, and uric acid (UA), while reducing the level of peroxides (LOOH), malondialdehyde (MDA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), the share of and low-density fractions of cholesterol (LDL), and activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), asparagine aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and creatinine kinase (CK). An increase in the high-density fractions of cholesterol (HDL) fraction of cholesterol and a decrease in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were noted as well. The results of the study indicate that 0.25 g/l of the probiotic, administered continuously (T1), clearly has the most beneficial effect in terms of enhancing antioxidant potential and reducing the level of stress indicators, without disturbing overall metabolism in the body. During the 42 days of rearing each chicken received 33.3 CFUx1011 Bacillus subtilis from the probiotic preparation. The body weight gain of chickens from T1-0.1, T1-0.2 and T2-0.25 groups was higher (p≤0.027) and more favorable comparing to G-C group.

Open access

Andrej Kormutak, Martina Brana, Martin Galgoci, Peter Manka, Denisa Sukenikova, Jana Libantova and Dusan Gömöry

Abstract

Generally acknowledged reduction of the interspecific hybrid fertility was utilized in evaluation of the putative hybrid swarms of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and mountain dwarf pine (P. mugo Turra) viability under field conditions. Pollen viability and seed quality of the trees from the four contact zones of P. syl­vestris and P. mugo in Slovakia were compared with the corres­ponding characteristics of the pure populations of these spe­cies from three reference localities. Pollen germination percentage was comparable in contact zones and control populations of the species. Statistically significant differences between the parent and hybrid groups were detected in pollen tube length only. In general, pollen tubes of the pure species populations were longer than those in contact zones. At the cone level, the individuals from contact zones possessed shor­ter cones than the trees of pure species populations P. mugo and P. sylvestris. This was paralleled by a lower number of seeds per cone in contact zones and higher amount of seeds per cone in the P. mugo population. Striking differences between individuals of the contact zones and reference populations were revealed also in germination potentials of their seeds. Significantly higher proportions of germinating seeds was found in the reference populations of P. mugo and P. sylvestris than in their contact zones. Contrary to seed quality parame­ters mentioned above, the fractions of filled but non-germina­ting seeds and amounts of empty seeds were higher in contact zones than in the parental species populations, indicating hig­her frequency occurrence of abortive embryogenesis in the former. The lower fertility characteristics of the individuals from contact zones indicate their hybrid nature.

Open access

C.J.A Shelbourne

Abstract

Advanced generation selection (AS) for the future breeding population (BP), becam a focus of tree breeders‘ thinking in the mid 1970s., particularly with Pinus radiata in New Zealand (NZ). Multitrait selection among families was generally recommen­ded, but this reduced genetic variation in the future breeding population. From Shaw and Hood‘s (1985) stochastic simulation, later confirmed by Rosvall, Lindgren and Mullin‘s (1998) stochastic simulation on Norway spruce, it was realised that selecting within families rather than among families of a new breeding population avoided any reduction of genetic variation in the BP. Heritabilities were low for seedling within-family selection but clonal replication within families should strongly increase heritabilities. Gains from cloned versus seedling populations of equal numbers of plants were also deterministically simulated (Shelbourne et al. 2007), and balanced (within-family) selec­tion gains from the cloned populations were all higher than seedling equivalents at heritabilities of 0.5 and under. The late P.A. Jefferson‘s (2016) Breeding Management Plan (which will be soon superceded) contains a re description of New Zealand (NZ) radiata pine breeding. Selections were made in crosses from the earlier program and OP see and scion mate­rial were collected from all 360 selections. OP family tests of selections have been planted at 11 sites in NZ and 7 in New South Wales and Tasmania, and scions of their female parents have all been grafted at an archive. Crosses made in the archive are being cloned and the programme was committed to within-family selection to retain genetic variance for the future closed breeding population. Clonally-replicated testing paired with within-family selection is the solution for balancing long-term gain and diversity in BP and PP.

Open access

Crusty E. Tinio, Saneyoshi Ueno, Kentaro Uchiyama, Lerma S. J. Maldia and Nobuhiro Tomaru

Abstract

Twenty polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed, using Next Generation Sequencing (Illumina), from genomic DNA of Parashorea malaanonan, a species of the Dipterocarpa­ceae which is ecologically and economically important in the Philippines. Thirty adult trees from a natural population were used to assess the success of PCR amplification and the degree of polymorphism. The number of alleles per locus varied from three to 13, and observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.200 to 0.808 and from 0.301 to 0.890 respectively. Total exclusion probabilities for the first and second parents over the 20 loci were 0.99932499 and 0.99999723 respectively. The high level of polymorphism at these loci makes it possible to obtain precise estimates of genetic parameters and thus the markers will help in studies on population genetics, conservation gene­tics, and molecular ecology of P. malaanonan.

Open access

Jan Jankowski, Krzysztof Kozłowski, Katarzyna Ognik, Zenon Zduńczyk, Kamil Otowski, Ewa Sawosz and Jerzy Juśkiewicz

Abstract

This study, performed on turkeys aged 1 to 98 days, aimed to investigate whether different dietary inclusion levels (20, 10, 2 mg kg−1) of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NP) as a substitute for copper sulphate (Cu-SUL) affect redox and immunological status of turkeys’ tissues. No significant differences in the final body weights of turkeys were found across the dietary treatments. A comparison of the physiological effects of Cu-NP and Cu-SUL revealed equivocal metabolic responses including decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the liver, increased SOD and catalase activities in breast muscles, decreased total glutathione concentrations in breast muscles, and decreased plasma IgY concentrations. An analysis of the antioxidant and immune status parameters in the blood, liver and breast meat of turkeys indicates that 10 mg/kg is the optimal inclusion level of additional Cu. Both two-fold higher and five-fold lower Cu supplementation levels have a negative influence on selected parameters of the antioxidant and immune status of birds. Lower supplementation levels of Cu-NP (2 and 10 mg/kg) exert similar physiological effects to Cu-SUL, whereas higher addition of Cu-NP (20 mg/kg) may negatively affect selected redox parameters and stimulate the synthesis of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. The results of the present study indicate that further research is needed to establish the actual dietary requirements for Cu in turkeys and the efficacy of nanoparticles as a new additional Cu source in turkey nutrition.

Open access

Sylwia Nisztuk-Pacek, Brygida Ślaska, Ludmiła Grzybowska-Szatkowska and Marek Babicz

Abstract

The aim of the study was to describe the mechanism of mitochondrial DNA inheritance in a group of farmed raccoon dogs. The study involved 354 individuals. Whole peripheral blood was the research material. DNA was isolated and PCR was performed for two fragments of mitochondrial genes: COX1 (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene) and COX2 (cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 gene). The PCR products were sequenced and subjected to bioinformatics analyses. Three mitochondrial haplotypes were identified in the COX1 gene fragment and two in the COX2 gene fragment. The analysis of mtDNA inheritance in the paternal line confirmed the three cases of paternal mtDNA inheritance, i.e. the so-called “paternal leakage” in the analysed population. In two families, all offspring inherited paternal mitochondrial DNA, whereas in one family one descendant inherited paternal mtDNA and another one inherited maternal mtDNA. The lineage data indicated that one female which inherited maternal mitochondrial DNA transferred it onto the next generation. To sum up, the results of the study for the first time demonstrated the phenomenon of “paternal leakage” in farmed raccoon dogs, which facilitated description of mitochondrial DNA inheritance in the paternal line.