Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a rare, under-explored lethal viral infection of cattle with gammaherpesvirus aetiological agents. Most often, the disease occurs on farms where cattle and sheep are kept together. However, other trigger mechanisms and environmental factors contribute. This study investigates the causation of MCF.
Material and Methods
An outbreak of MCF occurred in June - August 2017 in Kharchev village in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia. In this paper, we provide epidemiological (sanitary status of pastures, watering places, and premises) and weather data during the outbreak, and descriptions of the clinical signs and post-mortem changes in cattle. The virus was detected and isolated from pathological material samples and identified by molecular methods.
Extreme weather conditions, mixed-herd cattle and sheep farming, and unsatisfactory feed quality contributed to the outbreak. A virus related to herpesvirus OvHV2 was isolated and typed (MCF/Irkutsk/2017). Phylogenetic analysis showed its close genetic relationship to isolates from cattle and sheep in Germany, USA, and the Netherlands.
Sporadic outbreaks of MCF caused by biotic and abiotic factors together are typical for the Russian Federation, and the Irkutsk outbreak epitomised this. Temperature anomalies caused pasture depletion, resulting in feed and water deficiency for grazing animals and dehydration and acidosis. Heat stress in animals ultimately led to the occurrence of MCF in the herd.
Cysticercosis caused by the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena is economically the most important endemic parasitic disease in Iraq. Few data are available relating to the genetic divergence of this helminth. This study aimed to molecularly characterise Cysticercus tenuicollis isolates from sheep in Sulaymaniyah province, Iraq.
Material and Methods
DNA extraction and amplification of specimens of C. tenuicollis from 46 sheep were conducted by PCR for the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. The 19 amplicons were subjected to purification and partial sequencing.
Five 12S rRNA nucleotide sequence haplotypes were found. The pairwise nucleotide difference between haplotypes of 12S rRNA gene ranged from 0.2% to 0.7%. Four out of the five haplotypes of C. tenuicollis contained one to two base mutations and were discovered in Iraq for the first time, and this may be a unique mutation globally which has not been recorded previously. Three newly recorded haplotypes contained only one single mutation, and the other one contained two mutations. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolated strains were closely related to Iranian sheep isolates.
Four new strains of T. hydatigena were discovered for the first time in the study area.
The plate counting method widely used at present to discern viable from non-viable Brucella in the host or cell is time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a rapid, simple method for detecting and counting viable Brucella organisms.
Material and Methods
Using propidium monoazide (PMA) to inhibit amplification of DNA from dead Brucella, a novel, rapid PMA-quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) detection method for counting viable Brucella was established. The standard recombinant plasmid with the target BCSP31 gene fragment inserted was constructed for drawing a standard curve. The reaction conditions were optimised, and the sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability were analysed.
The optimal exposure time and working concentration of PMA were 10 min and 15 μg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient (R2) of the standard curve was 0.999. The sensitivity of the method was 103 CFU/mL, moreover, its specificity and repeatability also met the requirements. The concentration of B. suis measured by the PMA-qPCR did not differ significantly from that measured by the plate counting method, and the concentrations of viable bacteria in infected cells determined by the two methods were of the same order of magnitude.
In this study, a rapid and simple PMA-qPCR counting method for viable Brucella was established, which will facilitate related research.
Salmonellosis is a zoonotic disease, and Salmonella spp. can sometimes be found in dogs and cats, posing a risk to human health. In this study, the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of faecal Salmonella were investigated in pet dogs and cats in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.
Material and Methods
Faecal samples from 243 dogs and 113 cats, at seven pet clinics, were tested between March 2018 and May 2019. Each Salmonella isolate was characterised using serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility tests.
The prevalence of Salmonella was 9.47% in dogs and 1.77% in cats. Among the 25 isolates, eight serotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica were detected, S. Kentucky (n = 11), S. Indiana (n = 5), and S. Typhimurium (n = 4) predominating. S. Derby, S. Toucra, S. Sandiego, S. Newport, and S. Saintpaul all occurred singly. The 23 Salmonella strains found in dogs were from seven different serovars, while the two strains in cats were from two. The highest resistance rates were found for tetracycline (92%), azithromycin (88%), cefazolin (84%), nalidixic acid (80%), ampicillin (80%), ceftriaxone (80%), and streptomycin (76%). Resistance to three or more antimicrobial agents was detected in 24 (96%) isolates. Most of the S. Kentucky and S. Indiana isolates were multi-drug resistant to more than 11 agents.
The carriage rate was far higher in dogs than in cats from Xuzhou. Some isolated strains were highly resistant to antimicrobials used to treat infections in humans and pets, which may raise the risk of humans being infected with multi-drug resistant Salmonella via close contact with pets.
Mobile phones (MP) and other electronic and communication devices that are used daily expose users to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and contribute to an increasing incidence of neurological disorders. Brain tissue is the closest organ to the MP as it operates, thus the influence of MP radiation on brain tissue is of particular concern, although research is still inconclusive. The present study investigated the possible effect of an EMF (1,350–1,375 megahertz (MHz)) from an MP on morphological and histopathological profiles in the mouse brain.
Material and methods
Healthy BALB/c mice were assigned to three equal groups (a control and two experimental groups, n = 10 each). Experimental mice were exposed to EMFs continuously for 72 h, those of experimental group I to a 1,350 MHz field at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg, and group II to a 1,375 MHz field EMF at an SAR of 4.0 W/kg. Brain segmentation and histopathological analysis were applied to detect changes in the morphometric parameters of the brain lobes and identify pathological lesions, respectively.
Histopathology results revealed shrinkage of pyramidal neurons, presence of mild perivascular and perineural oedema, and some vacuolation of neurons and glial cells derived from mouse great hemispheres. The lesions also included reduction of Purkinje cells, vacuolisation of neurons and glial cells, and interstitial oedema in the cerebellum.
MP distance of 3 cm from the cage may induce appreciable morphological changes in mouse brain structures; therefore, more comprehensive research is essential for assessment of safe distance. These pronounced effects may interfere with the results of laboratory tests on murine experimental models in veterinary or biomedical research.
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), together with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), are both still the most efficient procedures for myocardial revascularization to treat advanced coronary artery disease (CAD). Donor blood vessels used in CABG are usually the internal thoracic artery (ITA) and saphenous vein (SV). The importance of inflammation and inflammatory pathways in graft patency is well established. Nevertheless, not all molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory process appear to be clear. Employing the expressive microarray approach to analyze the transcriptome of both venous and arterial grafts, five GO BP terms has been selected: “cellular response to interferon-gamma”, “inflammatory response”, “interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway”, “response to interferon-gamma” and “positive regulation of inflammatory response”. This study aimed to evaluate potential molecular factors that could be characteristic markers for both SV and ITA conduits.
Running title: Aortocoronary conduits may show a different inflammatory response
In vitro models represent an alternative technique to in vivo or ex vivo studies in the drug development process. Cell-based assays are used to measure the level of proliferation and toxicity, as well as activation of signalling pathways and changes in morphology in cultivated cells. The studies conducted in vitro are aimed to estimate the newly synthesised drugs’ ability to permeate biological barriers and exert their therapeutic or cytotoxic effects. However, more than half of all studied drugs fail in the second or third phase of clinical trials due to a lack of confirmed efficacy. About a third of drugs fail because of safety issues, such as unacceptable levels of toxicity. To reduce attrition level in drug development, it is crucial to consider the implementation of translational phenotypic assays as well as to decipher various molecular mechanisms of action for new molecular entities. In this review, we summarise the existing cell-based methods most frequently used in the studies on drugs, taking into account their advantages and drawbacks.
Running title: Cell-based approaches in drug development
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is the surgical method most commonly used to treat coronary artery disease (CAD). The vessels that are used in CABG are usually the internal thoracic artery (ITA) and the saphenous vein (SV). Transplant patency is one of the most important factors affecting transplant success. In this study, we used an expressive microarray method, approved by RT-qPCR, for transcriptome analysis of arterial and venous grafts. In the search for potential molecular factors, we analyzed gene ontologies of different expression based on the muscular system. Among interesting groups, we distinguished muscle cell proliferation, muscle contraction, muscle system process, regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation and smooth muscle cell proliferation. The highest increase in gene expression was observed in: ACTN2, RBPMS2, NR4A3, KCNA5, while the smallest decrease in expression was shown by the P2RX1, KCNH2, DES and MYOT genes. Particularly noteworthy are the ACTN2 and NR4A3 genes, which can have a significant impact on vascular patency. ACTN2 is a gene that can affect the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, while NR4A3 occurs in 4 of the 5 ontological groups discussed and can affect the inflammatory process in the blood vessel. To summarize, the presented study provided valuable insight into the molecular aspects characterizing the vessels used in CABG, and in particular identified genes that may be the target for further studies on duct patency.
Running title: CABG grafts’ molecular analysis of ‘muscle system process’
The presence of CCs around the oocyte after ovulation is one of the key elements contributing to oocyte developmental competence. In the presented study, we used CCs from 12 patients aged 18-40 diagnosed with infertility. After harvesting cells on day 1, 7, 15 and 30 of culture, total RNA was isolated and transcriptomic analysis was performed. The DAVID software indicated the following GO BP terms: “cell junction organization”, “cell migration”, “cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation”, “cell morphogenesis” and “cell motility”. Of the genes belonging to all ontological groups, the most downregulated were: SLC7A8, DFNB31, COL1A1, CDC42SE1, TGFBR3, HMGB1, with the most upregulated genes being: ANXA3, KIAA1199, HTR2B, VCAM1, DKK1.
While many studies focus on attempts to obtain fully competent oocytes, scientists still have difficulty attaining adequate results in vitro. Lack of adequate knowledge often results in low in vitro fertilization efficiency. Therefore, our research focuses on CCs cells, thanks to which the oocyte most likely acquires developmental competence. The main purpose of the study was to identify the potential molecular markers responsible for cell junction organization, migration, differentiation, morphogenesis and motility.
Running title: New markers of human cumulus oophorus cells cultured in vitro
The growth and maturation of the oocyte is a dynamic process which requires a variable supply of hormones, growth factors and energy. These needs are met partially by the surrounding somatic cells and the cumulus-oocyte complex, which communicate bi-directionally via gap junctions. Identifying and analyzing protein expression in the oocyte can provide insight in its development and growth. Further, like bone marrow stem cells, if relevant marker genes are found in oocytes, there is a potential for the oocyte to be manipulated into becoming hemopoietic stem cells. In this study, porcine oocytes were isolated and subjected to microarray analysis to compare the oocyte gene expression in vivo and in vitro maturation (IVM). Genes identified belonged to both ‘hemopoietic or lymphoid organ development’(GO:0048534) and ‘immune system development’ (GO:0002520), and the markers can be used to identify several activities such as cell migration, neurogenesis and proliferation. The following are the identified genes and all were downregulated after IVM to varying degrees: ID2, VEGFA, TGFBR3, INHBA, CDK6, BCL11A, MYO1E, ITGB1, EGR1, NOTCH2, SPTA1, KIT and TPD52. Our results should provide new markers to further investigate oocyte development and growth regulation.
Running title: Markers of hemopoietic organ development