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Tekla Papp

Abstract

The state can be an actor in Hungarian private law in several ways: on the one hand, by its organs (e.g. the Office of the National Assembly, ministries), on the other hand, by the organs of public law the state creates (e.g. budgetary organs), thirdly, through business associations operating with the participation of the state, fourthly, exceptionally, the state itself can also act as a subject of private law. In this study we call the attention to that the terminology used in case of business associations operating with state/local government participation is not sustainable and we focus on some issues where the private and public law discrepancy can be found in Hungary.

Open access

Petr Stejskal

Abstract

This article focuses on the applicability of bilateral investment treaties on the conduct of the occupying power towards foreign investments situated in the occupied territory. It examines the content of the obligation to respect the laws in force in the occupied territory as prescribed by Art. 43 of the Convention (IV) respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. Some authors proposed an idea that this obligation is a gateway provision for the applicability of international treaties which are in force in the occupied territory on the conduct of the occupier. They refer to the case-law dealing with the applicability of human rights treaties in occupied territories. However, after the interpretation of this provision and inquiry into the case-law, this paper reaches the con­clusion that the obligation to respect the laws in force does not have this effect. Instead, it deals with the legislative powers of the occupying power.

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Pavel Petr

Abstract

This paper aims to describe one part of the issue - the fact that a living ani­mal is not a thing. Does that mean that one could not “own” an animal, or perhaps that an animal as a subject of rights? Will it be liable for damage it causes? The author believe that the provision specifically aims at pets and it is a pity that it is not explicitly men­tioned. The different attitude of legislator is also reflected in compensation for damage, which now involves a special material element of compensation for damage caused by and to an animal. These and other aspects are addressed in this paper.

Open access

Slavomír Halla

Abstract

Consent, the final frontier. International commercial arbitration is a dis­pute resolution mechanism embedded in consent of the parties involved. Presentation of such a mutual understanding is done through an arbitration agreement. However, the aim of this paper is to analyse whether its contractual, indeed consensual, nature is the only element which the courts use to identify the subjects who may compel or must be compelled to arbitrate disputes, or whether they employ other considerations as well. The paper will focus on extension doctrines which might be less known even to a professional audience: piercing of the corporate veil, estoppel & group of companies. A review of selected case law leads to a conclusion that consent-finding analysis is defi­nitely a starting point of any analysis. However, at the same time courts and arbitrators do indeed use tools of contract interpretation and the ones based on equity or good faith considerations to establish, and exceptionally force, the implication of consent far beyond what is obvious.

Open access

Jessica McKenney

Abstract

This Paper addresses the right to informed consent regarding euthanasia using international conventions and, to a lesser extent, national laws and policies. Spe­cifically, The United States, Belgium and the Netherlands will be examined. The Paper specifically discusses legal capacity, the right to consent and the right to information. Three stories are used to argue the importance of implementing effective safeguards for these rights and notes that these safeguards are necessary regardless of whether or not euthanasia is legalized in a state. This Paper also argues that patients should not be offered euthanasia for mental illnesses. The ethical debate surrounding whether euthanasia should be permitted generally is not discussed.

Open access

Andrea Circolo and Ondrej Hamuľák

Abstract

The paper focuses on the very topical issue of conclusion of the membership of the State, namely the United Kingdom, in European integration structures. The ques­tion of termination of membership in European Communities and European Union has not been tackled for a long time in the sources of European law. With the adop­tion of the Treaty of Lisbon (2009), the institute of 'unilateral' withdrawal was intro­duced. It´s worth to say that exit clause was intended as symbolic in its nature, in fact underlining the status of Member States as sovereign entities. That is why this institute is very general and the legal regulation of the exercise of withdrawal contains many gaps. One of them is a question of absolute or relative nature of exiting from integration structures. Today’s “exit clause” (Art. 50 of Treaty on European Union) regulates only the termination of membership in the European Union and is silent on the impact of such a step on membership in the European Atomic Energy Community. The presented paper offers an analysis of different variations of the interpretation and solution of the problem. It´s based on the independent solution thesis and therefore rejects an automa­tism approach. The paper and topic is important and original especially because in the multitude of scholarly writings devoted to Brexit questions, vast majority of them deals with institutional questions, the interpretation of Art. 50 of Treaty on European Union; the constitutional matters at national UK level; future relation between EU and UK and political bargaining behind such as all that. The question of impact on withdrawal on Euratom membership is somehow underrepresented. Present paper attempts to fill this gap and accelerate the scholarly debate on this matter globally, because all consequences of Brexit already have and will definitely give rise to more world-wide effects.

Open access

Michala Chadimova

Abstract

This article aims to describe the development process of superior respon­sibility doctrine at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. Superior responsibility is contained in all Statutes of ad hoc tribunals and also the Rome Statute. However, the case of ECCC is distinctive for its special structure and applicable law. As such, the ECCC is being often called ‘hybrid’, court. This Article aims to analyse travaux préparatoires to the ECCC Statute and ECCC Statute itself when it comes to superior responsibility. This analysis will be followed by the ECCC case law. In 2019, the closure of ECCC is anticipated. As such, the first complex analysis on superior responsibility and its applicability by the ECCC is appropriate and can be used as guidance for other already established or future hybrid tribunals. To some extent, the findings can also be used for the application of superior responsibility by the ICC.

Open access

Magdalena Gruber

Abstract

This paper examines the Late Payment Directive of the European Union and seeks to answer the question of whether the provisions of the Directive apply to loan contracts in corporate transactions. The paper first describes and analyses the Late Pay­ment Directive and provides a comprehensive analysis of relevant arguments and legal sources. It then evaluates the different factors required by the Late Payment Directive and finally argues that the Late Payment Directive has to be applied to loan contracts and facility agreements, even if this is not explicitly foreseen in the Directive.

Open access

Bronislava Coufalová

Abstract

The criminal responsibility and the system of sanctioning juvenile offenders is one of fundamental criminal law issues. Individuals who start a criminal career early on are usually not easy to reintegrate into normal life. That is one reason why it is neces­sary to discuss the problem of juvenile justice in depth. The legal literature in the Czech Republic is devoted to this topic on a large scale, however Hungarian legislation has not yet been analysed fo purposes of comparation. The Czech Republic and Hungary fall under the United Nations categorization to Eastern Europe and therefore certain similar features can be assumed. On the other hand any identified differences may be the basis for future changes of the legislation.