Prebiotics can play an important role in functional foods. In this paper, casein and five probiotics were selected to study the effects on ACE inhibitory peptides in fermented milk of L. bulgaricus LB6 through Plackett-Burman design, so as to improve the production of ACE inhibitory peptides. The results showed that xylooligosaccharides (XOS), fructosaccharide (FOS) and inulin had the most significant effect on the yield of ACE inhibitory peptides. Optimization added the amount of the three prebiotics added, that is, the amount of XOS added was 0.7%, the amount of FOS added was 1.1%, and the amount of inulin added was 0.7%. It provides a basis for subsequent optimization experiments.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) injury is one of the key cause affecting the sales of fresh-cut apples during the sales period. The method to warn the time till occurring CO2 injury would be convenient for businesses and consumers, but so far, no one has paid attention. This research aimed to study the change rule of the mechanism of carbon dioxide injury of fresh-cut apples treated with high CO2 concentration. The experiment was conducted at 5, 15, 25 and 35°C for 4 days. Every twelve hours, the fresh-cut apple was analyzed by measuring the changes of firmness, soluble solids concentration, browning index and sensory evaluation. The results showed that sensory scores, firmness and soluble solids concentration decreased over time, while the browning index of freshly cut apple increased rapidly with time. Based on the dynamic model of the browning index, with the CO2 Injury warning model of ready-to-eat apples treated with high CO2 concentration was determined.
This study assessed the physicochemical and sensory properties of ‘probiotic’ drink from blends of milk analogues from African yam bean, soybean and coconut. Milk analogues were blended at ratios of 1:1:1, 3:1:1 and 5:1:1 (African yam bean: soybean: coconut) as samples A, B and C respectively. These samples were fermented for 24 h at 43°C using Lactobacillus delbrueckii. The results showed that the fermented milk analogue of ratio 1:1:1 was the most acceptable in terms of sensory parameters. The pH of the milk analogues ranged from 5.07 to 5.85. The sample B1 (fermented (1:1:1) African yam bean: soybean: coconut) had a crude protein of 2.38%, potassium of 80.13 mg/100g, phytate of 2.85 mg/100g and saponin was 0.19 mg/100g. The study concluded that the sample with equal ratio of African yam bean, soybean and coconut adjudged the most acceptable by tasters.
The objective of this research was to assess energy independent and develop a model of closed system production process of cocoa butter and cocoa powder. Mass balance analysis and potential energy assessment of byproducts were used to develop the closed system of cacao processing industry. The results showed that cacao industry with 4,500 kg of cacao capacity per day has the potential energy of 14,561,290 k cal per day derived from the pod husk and bean shells. This potential energy meets the energy needs for the production process. This study explained that the cacao industry can be developed to be an energy independent industry by using the by-products for energy source.
Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) has been used as a probiotic for the prevention or treatment of various human gastrointestinal diseases for many years. Thus, S. boulardii has a wide range of application prospects in medicine and food industry. The experiments were investigated with effecting of carbon sources (galactose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, lactose, glucose, and soluble starch), nitrogen sources (tryptone, casein, yeast extract, peptone, soy peptone, beef extract and malted milk; ammonium sulfate, urea, diammonium hydrogen citrate, triammonium citrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride and potassium nitrate), prebiotics (xylo-oligosaccharide, isomaltooligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide, galacto-oligosaccharide, stachyose, raffinose and inulin) on the number of viable cells and dry cell weight of S. boulardii. The optimum concentration of 5 % glucose or sucrose, 2 % peptone or yeast extract, 0.4 % urea, 0.2 % fructo-oligosaccharide and 0.6 % galacto-oligosaccharide for S. boulardii grew better in medium.
Freshly harvested pumpkin seed was processed into flour namely; raw (RPSF), fermented (FPSF), germinated (GPSF) and roasted (ROPSF). Various pumpkin seed flour obtained were investigated for nutritional properties using standard methods. Protein was higher in the fermented flour (35.85%) while the roasted flour (46.31%) possessed the highest fat content. Results obtained from processed pumpkin seed flour further revealed that glutamic acid (10.45-13.02 g/100g) and linoleic acid (134.72-419.70 µg/ml) were the most abundant amino acid and fatty acid, respectively. Processed pumpkin seed flour contained appreciable amount of minerals and demonstrated very good functional properties. It can be concluded that subjecting pumpkin seed to various processing methods enhanced its nutritional properties and may find application in food industry.
This research investigates the physical-chemical, sensorial and mechanical characteristics of starch-based edible films incorporating three types of bee hive products: honey, propolis and bee bread, in concentrations varying from 1% to 3%, reported to starch. The results indicates an increasing of films moisture, water activity, ash content and acidity, in the order: honey<propolis<bee bread, all values increasing with the increasing of hive products percentage into the control film; aw is remaining at very low values, under 0.4. Sensorial analysis indicated honey as the better suited for improving taste and flavour and bee bread for increasing colour intensity of the films; the sensorial characteristics are maintained during 30 days of films storage, in all cases. Compared with the control starch-based film (which is elastic, brittle and hard), the films containing 2% bee hive products are elasto-plastic and more resistant to penetration, the resistance increasing in the order: bee bread<propolis<honey.
Broad research interest is observed over last decade, toward searching for a new natural antioxidants, which could be applied in food industry. Especially attractive seems to be those rich in polyphenols, such as cherry. Thus, presented study determine the effect of cherry extract (equivalent of 20 mg and 40 mg GAE kg−1) on physicochemical properties of ground pork frozen for 80 days. Samples were analyzed for color, color change, color attractiveness, myoglobin oxidation, fat oxidation, fatty acids profile, cooking loss, texture profile. The positive effect of cherry extract was observed for fat oxidation but cooking loss was higher in samples with extract addition. Color, color change, color attractiveness, myoglobin oxidation or fatty acids profile did not differ between groups.
A comparative study was carried out for eight mature date fruit cultivars to assess physicochemical and nutritional values. Results showed that fruit and flesh weights and seed sizes indicated wide diversity among studied cultivars. The highest pH, acidity, and ash levels were obtained from Tazizaout and Oukasaba cultivars; protein contents varied from 0.47 (Tazizaout) to 0.31 g/100g DM (Delat), while free amino acids concentrations were found between 1.47 (Oukasaba) and 0.79 g/100g DM (Tazarzeit). Total carbohydrates were ranged from 96.28 to 84.51 g/100g DM. The date is low in fat, the highest concentration was 0.11 g/100g DM. Principal Component Analysis indicated that Ourous and Delat cultivars have specific characteristics and can be distinguished from the other cultivars.
Popsicle is a flavored and edible ice on stick that can be produced with dairy products. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of using milk from tigernut as a non-dairy source and date palm fruits as sweetener for producing popsicles with enhanced bioactive properties and acceptability. Tigernut milk-based popsicles sweetened with sugar, unroasted date or roasted date were made. The physical properties, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, melting rate, and sensory characteristics were evaluated. The roasting process significantly influenced the total phenol, antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics of the popsicles. Melting resistance was higher in the popsicles containing both the roasted and unroasted dates compared to the sugar sweetened popsicles. Popsicles sweetened with roasted dates exhibited the most acceptable sensory properties in terms of flavour, taste and overall acceptability.