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Agnieszka Graczyk

Abstract

Jews have lived in Iraq and Kurdistan for thousands of years. The vision of the founding of the State of Israel and the emergence of the Nazi ideology in Europe caused that the participation of Jews in social and cultural life and contribution to the development of education and the economy in Iraq ceased to have meaning. The strong influence of Nazi and anti-Zionist ideology led to discrimination and persecution of the Jewish minority in this country. The effect of this was the establishment of laws in the 1950s, which in exchange for permission to travel to Israel deprived Jews of Iraqi citizenship. Nowadays, the legal situation in Iraq and Iraqi Kurdistan has changed aTher the overthrow of Saddam Hussein’s regime. Currently, Kurdish law allows the appointment of representatives of ethnic and religious minorities, the creation of a cultural centres and the reconstruction of important places of worship, as well as obtaining compensation for lost property as a result of repression of previous Iraqi governments. However, the Iraqi New Constitution of 2005 and the Act of 2006, superior to Kurdish law, provide the opportunity to return and regain citizenship to those who lost it, but the exception is Jews who renounced their citizenship on the basis of the 1950 and 1952 laws. Despite the still strong ties with Iraq and Arab culture, Jews, especially Israeli, are deprived of the opportunity to return, regain their citizenship and claim their right to lost property.

Open access

Zohar Maor

Abstract

This essay aims at exploring Zionist currents that resisted the establishment of a Jewish nation-state, their non-statist vision of Zionism and its roots in Jewish conditions and political traditions, as well as in European anti-statist ideologies and national patterns. First, the non-Zionist diaspora nationalism of Simon Dubnow will be examined, as an important point of reference of non-statist Zionisms; then, the reservations of Ahad Ha’am, founder of “spiritual Zionism”, from the vision of a nation-state and the Marxian anti-statism of Ber Borochov and his socialist followers will be observed.

Thereafter, the anarchism of Martin Buber and his followers in the binational factions “Brit Shalom and Ihud” will be discussed; here anti-statism is manifestly theological. Lastly, the current manifestations of non-statist Jewish nationalism will be succinctly explored, focusing on two religious-Zionist rabbis, the late Menachem Fruman and Shimon Gershon Rosenberg, and the American historian David N. Myers.

Open access

Bartłomiej Secler

Abstract

The article focuses on the autonomous and separatist pursuits that occur in present day Italy. The work was inspired by the consultative referendums of 2017 in the regions of Veneto and Lombardia. Their aim was to give the residents a chance to express their views regarding the possible expansion of the autonomy of these two administrative units. As a result of the plebiscites, a significant majority voted for the expansion of the autonomy, which might trigger the pursuit of more permissions for the regions. One has to remember that in accordance with the constitution, Italy is a unanimous and non-divisible state. However, this does not mean that presently (as well as in the future) there are no separatist and autonomous tendencies. The tendencies have historical, economical, cultural, social or political reasons. The aim of the article is to analyze these tendencies on the basis subject literature and sources.

Open access

Farhang Muzzafar Muhamad

Abstract

This paper focuses upon some of the female poets in Kurdish literature who have played a major role in establishing Kurdish women’s poetry and their poetic texts, and how their voices become deeper and more feminine. The study will encompass the earliest Kurdish female poet from the classic period -Masture-y Ardalani (1805–1848), one of the most prominent Kurdish poets - and four poets from the modern period, namely Diya Ciwan (b. 1953), Kazhal Ahmed (b. 1967), Nezend Begikhani (b. 1964), and Mahabad Qaradaghi (b. 1966). The existence of feminine poetry in Kurdish literature is considered new born, but in fact the real emergence of women’s poetry in Kurdish literature dates back to the early 1990s, aTher the liberation of southern Kurdistan from the Saddam Hussein regime. Additionally, it is important to note that the Kurdish political and creative history is not without women’s presence.

Open access

Paul J. Best

Abstract

This paper reports on the recent revival of the Lemko Association (Lemko Soyuz) in North America, under the auspices of the Carpathian Institute, a US federal and Connecticut state recognized tax-exempt, non-profit, non-political, non-sectarian educational corporation. The Lemko Association, founded in 1929, had become essentially defunct by the end of 2009. Beginning in 2010, however, in a new location and new legal status it has been revived, publishing a quarterly, “Karpatska Rus’”, books, pamphlets and flags and arranging for lectures.

Open access

Aleksandra Kruk

Abstract

The fact that about 4000 immigrants are placed in Cottbus, situated 192 km from Poznań and 83 km from Zielona Góra, makes us feel it is necessary to analyze modus operandi of the entities legitimizing or delegitimizing the Open Door policy of the Chancellor Angela Merkel. To explain their position, political actors refer to the diverse narratives that Rolf Peter Sieferle classified as: the refugee narrative; a narrative recalling the demographic problem; a narrative referring to problems in the labor market and a lack of qualified employees; a narrative referring to the essence of multiculturalism. Difficulties in absorbing immigrants caused a discussion about fatigue both in political parties and in the media, but they showed the potential of social initiatives and movements, for example the organization “Future of the Fatherland”, led by Hans-Christoph Berndt. His views combined with the statements of Dietmar Woidke, the Prime Minister of Brandenburg, or Jörg Steinbach, the President of the Brandenburg University of Technology, reflect the diversity of the assessment of migration policy in a micro-scale.

Open access

Piotr J. Krzyżanowski and Krzysztof Wasilewski

Abstract

The article analyzes the situation of the Roma people in the Lubuskie Region in the years 1945-1989. Being part of the so-called “Western Territories”, the Lubuskie Region, first as the Zielona Góra Voivodship and later divided into Zielona Góra Voivodship and Gorzów Voivodship, attracted a number of ethnic minorities, including Gypsies. “e article presents how local political and security authorities reacted to the presence of the Roma people, adapting central laws, most notably the 1964 forced settlement bill, to local situation. In their analysis, the authors use documents held in various local and central archives, including the Institute of National Remembrance archive and Ministry of the Interior archive.

Open access

Khoushnaw Tillo

Abstract

For centuries, Kurds have been carrying out activities aimed at obtaining their own state. Due to the cooperation of Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria, it was impossible in the twentieth century. As a result of Operation Desert Storm, a Kurdish enclave was created in the north of Iraq, which over the years developed and allowed for real dreams of recognized independence, at least for some of the Kurds living in the Middle East. A&er the overthrow of Saddam Hussein and the withdrawal of US troops from Iraq in 2011, there was a political vacuum in which we observe the weakening of the Iraqi state, the outbreak of the Arab Spring and the emergence of the Islamic State, which also had direct consequences for the Kurds. The weakness of the central government in Baghdad, the need to fight the Kurdish army against IS fighters raised the importance of arguments for the proclamation of an independent Kurdish state in the Middle East, or maybe even two, including the possible division of Syria.

Open access

Zhan Toshchenko

Abstract

The article deals with the emergence of a new social class, precariat, explains the causes that brought it into being, its structure and key characteristics. It traces the maturing of the idea of precariat in scientific thought, in world and Russian social practice. The main features of this class are revealed and a comparison is made with other social groups. The article reveals the specificities of this class, its place and role in contemporary divisionof labour, its position in the labour market and the first sprouts of its self-awarenessas “a class for itself.” The consequences of the existence and functioning of the precariat are discussed.

Open access

Salome Dundua

Abstract

In this article, we discuss two different directions about the Georgian nationalism of the 19th century: first we consider, thetrinity of language, homeland, faith – maybe one of the best classical formulations of nationalist project. And second, in the process of creation of the nation, in the course of research of the Georgian nation-building of that period, we can not avoid the role of printed media. Georgian intellectuals published their opinions on general internal problems or foreign policy processes and all the most important ideas expressed by them were widespread by the printed media. Under strict censorship, discussing foreign policy processes was an indirect way to disclose the attitudes of Georgian intellectuals to the building Georgian nation, restoration of state, territorial integrity and independence, as well as to the colonial politics in generall.

“Let’s be self-sufficient” is a phrase best describing the main purpose of Georgian intellectuals. However, it is noteworthy that the creators of that time Georgian nationalismprimarily sought to gain autonomy within the Russian Empire, while full political independence was due to the reality a far and difficult goal. Generally, Georgian nationalism developed during that period was clearly mild and was far from ethno-cultural discrimination that is o”en characteristic for nationalism.