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Open access

Anna Staniewska

Abstract

Securing green infrastructure is crucial to maintaining the quality of life in cities therefore it is necessary to create new public green spaces responding to the needs of city dwellers. This paper provides a qualitative evaluation of the results of teaching the process of public participation to landscape architecture students from Politechnika Krakowska including such activities both preceding and during their work on the design of public parks. In this paper the author describes the rationale behind introducing participative planning into academic education and its theoretical background, as well as comparing the local perspective with examples of successful participative projects in the broader European context and the context of international trends in landscape architecture and urban planning in general. Both the teaching methodology and participation tools used are presented, referring to the methods already in use in practice and highlighting the fact that the teaching goes far beyond the legal minimum foreseen in Polish legislation. Finally, based on a summary of their experiences and case studies, particular fields of impact observed in the practical implementation of their projects are identified. Taking all this into consideration, it may be stated that from the moment when landscape architecture graduates started working for the public authorities in Kraków and making use of their knowledge and skills in public participation, the quality of public involvement has risen and the number of parks realised via this process is growing.

Open access

Stefania Środa-Murawska, Leszek S. Dąbrowski and Paweł Smoliński

Abstract

Social participation allows public authorities to learn about communities’ views and thus to jointly work out satisfying solutions. The pre-1989 law in Poland generally prevented the possibility of citizens taking part in the making of decisions about the use of public areas. Over the following years participatory decision-making was adopted, which evolved and expanded as new tools were introduced which encourage citizen involvement. The municipality of Toruń adopted a participatory approach to budgeting in 2014 so that the city’s residents could influence the use of public land in their neighbourhoods according to their needs. The total amount of funding spent on participatory budgets between 2014 and 2017 exceeded PLN 26 million. The aim of the study is to prepare a typology of desired changes in the city of Toruń and to identify the level of social participation on the basis of projects nominated for financing from the participatory budget. To this end, the types of projects and the turnout of the residents who voted were analysed by place of residence. The study showed that both the number of nominated projects and the number of voters increased in the years covered by the survey, thus pointing to the success of participatory budgeting, a form of schooling in local democracy, in Toruń.

Open access

Natalia Bursiewicz

Abstract

In Poland, the last 15 years have been marked by various, numerous regeneration projects of historic cities that were supposed to improve the citizens quality of life and their security, as well as to create an attractive tourist offer. Those programs were often focused on the renewal, reshape and modernization of public squares. Such changes never go unnoticed. On contrary, these are frequently associated with criticism, debate and disagreements. The research has been focused on the analysis of regeneration projects from selected Market Squares in historic cities and town centres in Lower Silesia. The main aim was to exhibit the medieval origin of those squares and recently introduced contemporary layout. Moreover it was to present diverse opinions regarding square’s form and function, that can be crucial in understanding the architects, planners and citizens’ points of view and their ‘feelings’ towards the space.

Open access

Krystyna Ilmurzyńska

Abstract

This article investigates the suitability of traditional and participatory planning approaches in managing the process of spatial development of existing housing estates, based on the case study of Warsaw’s Ursynów Północny district. The basic assumption of the article is that due to lack of government schemes targeted at the restructuring of large housing estates, it is the business environment that drives spatial transformations and through that shapes the development of participation. Consequently the article focuses on the reciprocal relationships between spatial transformations and participatory practices. Analysis of Ursynów Północny against the background of other estates indicates that it presents more endangered qualities than issues to be tackled. Therefore the article focuses on the potential of the housing estate and good practices which can be tracked throughout its lifetime. The paper focuses furthermore on real-life processes, addressing the issue of privatisation, development pressure, formal planning procedures and participatory budgeting. In the conclusion it attempts to interpret the existing spatial structure of the estate as a potential framework for a participatory approach.

Open access

Krystyna Pawłowska

Abstract

The idea of public participation in spatial management finds an ever-expanding number of supporters and implementers in Poland. An increasing number of references to the subject are incorporated in Polish acts of law and other legal regulations. Despite progress in the field, the status quo cannot be considered satisfactory. Acceptance an idea does not always go hand in hand with skill in applying it. The reason for the many failures and misunderstandings are the defects and errors in the methods of its application as well as false representations concerning the whole idea and its constituent parts. Far from being clear, at face value cases of participation occurring in this context may meet the requirements and yet bring none of the expected benefits. A caricature of participation, they discourage further attempts. This article presents a list of defects, shortcomings, flaws, errors, and myths that make the implementation of participatory projects difficult, if not impossible.

Open access

Łukasz Drozda

Abstract

The objective of the article is to present the assumptions of the gentrification approach, which allows one to assess the impact of public spatial actions undertaken by various actors in the process of social production of space. The study proposes a research methodology that distinguishes the social, economic and spatial dimensions of gentrification. The author makes use of source literature on the subject of gentrification and public policy theories as well as the results of the author’s gentrification research conducted in Warsaw, New York and Istanbul on examples of places that were planned using various types of participatory techniques. The study performs the operationalisation of the measurement of gentrification as a useful analytical tool in policy science.

Open access

Martin Barthel and Ewelina Barthel

Abstract

This paper focuses on the largely unexamined phenomenon of the developing trans-national suburban area west of Szczecin. Sadly the local communities in this functionally connected area struggle with national planning policies that are unsuitable for the region. The paper examines the impact of those processes on the border region in general and on the localities in particular. The paper investigates the consequences for local narratives and the cohesive development of the Euroregion and what position Polish and German communities took to develop the region, even without the necessary planning support. The region has succeeded in establishing grass-roots planning mechanisms which have helped to create a metropolitan-region working from the bottom up.

Open access

Damjan Klobčar, Maja Lindič and Matija Bušić

Abstract

This paper presents an overview of additive manu­facturing technologies for production of metal parts. A special attention is set to wire arc additive manufac­turing (WAAM) technologies, which include MIG/MAG welding, TIG welding and plasma welding. Their advan­tages compared to laser or electron beam technologies are lower investment and operational costs. However, these processes have lower dimensional accuracy of produced structures. Owing to special features and higher productivity, the WAAM technologies are more suitable for production of bigger parts. WAAM technology has been used together with welding robot and a cold metal transfer (CMT) power source. Thin walls have been produced using G3Si1 welding wire. The microstructure and hardness of produced structures were analysed and measured. A research was done to deter­mine the optimal welding parameters for production of thin walls with smooth surface. A SprutCAM software was used to make a code for 3D printing of sample part.

Open access

Robert Matyszkiel, Bogusław Grochowina, Adam Dobkowski, Marcin Wiśniewski and Paweł Domaros

Abstract

Accomplishment of basic services implementation with specific quality is one of the main challenges of the command and communication systems for modern maritime safety and defense. The specificity of the marine environment imposes the use of narrowband HF (High Frequency) and VHF (Very High Frequency) radio communication devices which are capable to implement IP transmission. This paper presents the requirements for the HF and VHF radio systems according to the IP protocol requirements. At the beginning basic properties of narrowband HF and VHF waveforms in context of their operational scenarios has been described. Then results of experimental research (implementation of narrowband services — voice and data) has been presented. Finally further research directions with contribution of the authors, in NATO working groups related to the development of NBWF (Narrowband Waveform) for coalition communication has been presented.

Open access

Sara Mirzabagheri, Ghazaleh Derhamjani, Sahar Maharati, Zeynab Ziaee, F. Vatankhah and D. Mirzabagheri

Abstract

Limestone has been commonly used in concrete for several decades. Moreover, calcium carbonate was used as a portion of cement content. Therefore cuttlebone powder, which is composed of a naturally occurring crystal form of calcium carbonate named aragonite, was used in concrete as a substitution of a portion of cement content in this research program for the first time. It led to the production of green concrete which is a type of concrete causes less harm to environment. 3, 5 and 7 percent of cement were substituted with cuttlebone powder. For this purpose, 4 concrete mix designs included 36 cubes, 4 cylinders and 4 prisms were casted. Results showed that weight of the specimens with cuttlebone powder was lower than control specimen. Moreover, by adding cuttlebone powder to concrete, slump increased. Although compressive and tensile strengths of the specimens with cuttlebone powder were lower than control specimen, but the specimen with 3% cuttlebone powder had adequate strength. Besides, three-point flexural strength of the concrete with 3% cuttlebone powder was higher than control specimen. It seems that by reducing water content of the specimen with cuttlebone powder to have similar slump to the control specimen, better performance of concrete can be achieved. So, this natural material can be used instead of a portion of cement to produce green concrete.