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Open access

Sara Mirzabagheri, Ghazaleh Derhamjani, Sahar Maharati, Zeynab Ziaee, F. Vatankhah and D. Mirzabagheri

Abstract

Limestone has been commonly used in concrete for several decades. Moreover, calcium carbonate was used as a portion of cement content. Therefore cuttlebone powder, which is composed of a naturally occurring crystal form of calcium carbonate named aragonite, was used in concrete as a substitution of a portion of cement content in this research program for the first time. It led to the production of green concrete which is a type of concrete causes less harm to environment. 3, 5 and 7 percent of cement were substituted with cuttlebone powder. For this purpose, 4 concrete mix designs included 36 cubes, 4 cylinders and 4 prisms were casted. Results showed that weight of the specimens with cuttlebone powder was lower than control specimen. Moreover, by adding cuttlebone powder to concrete, slump increased. Although compressive and tensile strengths of the specimens with cuttlebone powder were lower than control specimen, but the specimen with 3% cuttlebone powder had adequate strength. Besides, three-point flexural strength of the concrete with 3% cuttlebone powder was higher than control specimen. It seems that by reducing water content of the specimen with cuttlebone powder to have similar slump to the control specimen, better performance of concrete can be achieved. So, this natural material can be used instead of a portion of cement to produce green concrete.

Open access

Edyta Puniach and Anita Kwartnik-Pruc

Abstract

Construction surveying consist in overall surveying works performed at every stage of the construction and use of a building structure. The surveyor participates in the processes of designing, direct implementation, maintenance and use, as well as demolition of a building structure. Advanced surveying techniques, such as laser scanning and UAV photogrammetry, are being increasingly used to perform the surveyor’s tasks. The aim of this research paper was to analyze the Polish legal regulations for the possibilities of applying the above-mentioned techniques to carry out the surveying works which are subject to the obligatory submission to public administration authorities. The primary focus was placed on the type of the works associated with construction surveying. The conducted research studies confirmed the lack of appropriate guidelines that would clearly define the scope and method of using laser scanning and UAV photogrammetry in construction surveying. At the same time, it was demonstrated that both these techniques of spatial data acquisition were sufficiently accurate to perform plane and vertical land surveys pursuant to the legal acts currently in force in Poland, and they can be used at selected stages of construction surveying. Finally, the authors proposed some solutions that would make it easier for the surveyors to use laser scanning and UAV photogrammetry in standard surveying works.

Open access

Iuliana Adriana Cuibac Picu

Abstract

Smart Cities are no longer just an aspiration, they are a necessity. For a city to be smart, accurate data collection or improvement the existing ones is needed, also an infrastructure that allows the integration of heterogeneous geographic information and sensor networks at a common technological point. Over the past two decades, laser scanning technology, also known as LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), has become a very important measurement method, providing high accuracy data and information on land topography, vegetation, buildings, and so on. Proving to be a great way to create Digital Terrain Models. The digital terrain model is a statistical representation of the terrain surface, including in its dataset the elements on its surface, such as construction or vegetation. The data use in the following article is from the LAKI II project “Services for producing a digital model of land by aerial scanning, aerial photographs and production of new maps and orthophotomaps for approximately 50 000 sqKm in 6 counties: Bihor, Arad, Hunedoara, Alba, Mures, Harghita including the High Risk Flood Zone (the border area with the Republic of Hungary in Arad and Bihor)”, which are obtained through LiDAR technology with a point density of 8 points per square meter. The purpose of this article is to update geospatial data with a higher resolution digital surface model and to demonstrate the differences between a digital surface models obtain by aerial images and one obtain by LiDAR technology. The digital surface model will be included in the existing geographic information system of the city Marghita in Bihor County, and it will be used to help develop studies on land use, transport planning system and geological applications. It could also be used to detect changes over time to archaeological sites, to create countur lines maps, flight simulation programs, or other viewing and modelling applications.

Open access

Jagna Chmielowska-Bąk, Inga Zinicovscaia, Marina Frontasyeva, Aleksandra Milczarek, Sabrina Micheli, Mariia Vysochanska and Joanna Deckert

Abstract

Iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg) deficiency in human diets is a widespread problem observed in various regions of the world. Insufficient Fe uptake results in the development of iron dependent anaemia and depressed physical and intellectual performance. In turn Mg deficiency is associated with alterations in neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems. An emerging alternative to traditional supplementation of these elements in the form of pills, liquids or effervescent tablets, is introduction of fortified food products. In present study we show that preincubation of soybean seeds in Fe and Mg solutions leads to elevated content of these elements in the seedlings. Importantly the pretreatment did not affect germination rate, seedlings growth or, with an exception of Fe supplementation at highest concentration, antioxidant capacity. The obtained results indicate that preincubation of seeds in Fe and Mg solutions may be a promising method of obtaining enriched soybean sprouts.

Open access

Dániel Kiss and Anna Lovrics

Abstract

In this paper, we introduce a three-dimensional lattice-based computational model in which every lattice point can be occupied by an agent of various types (e.g. cancer cell, blood vessel cell or extracellular matrix). The behavior of agents can be associated to different chemical compounds that obey mass-transfer laws such as diffusion and decay in the surrounding environment. Furthermore, agents are also able to produce and consume chemical compounds. After a detailed description, the capabilities of the model are demonstrated by presenting and discussing a simulation of a biological experiment available in the literature.

Open access

Niraj Kumar Singh and Baboo Rai

Abstract

Fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) presently utilized as a part of special structures subjected to dynamic loads for example airport pavements, expressways overlays, bridge decks and machine foundations. In most cases, FRC contains just a single kind of fibre. The utilization of at least two kinds of fibres in an appropriate mix can possibly improve the mechanical properties of concrete and result in performance synergy. The audit demonstrates that the blend of fibre allows a more powerful control of the dynamic crack development. This review analyses the components for synergistic impacts that gives direction on the fiber and matrix choice.

Open access

Paweł Świsłowski and Małgorzata Rajfur

Abstract

The aim of the research was to assess the level of contamination with heavy metals (manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead) in two forest areas selected in different places in Poland: the first one in the Swietokrzyskie Province (forests of the Staporkow Forest Division) and the second one in the Opolskie Province (forests of the Kup Forest Division). The degree of contamination of these forest areas with analytes was found using edible large-fruited mushrooms naturally occurring there - the research was carried out using passive biomonitoring method. Heavy metals in mushrooms (separately in stems and hats) as well as in soil samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with excitation in flame (F-AAS). The obtained results were interpreted by assessing the degree of contamination of forest areas on the basis of concentrations of heavy metals in mushrooms. The obtained results indicate an increased accumulation of heavy metals in hats than in mushrooms stems. On the basis of the obtained data, significant contamination of forest areas with selected heavy metals was also found. This is confirmed by the possibility of using mushrooms as biomonitors in passive biomonitoring of forest areas, which are heavy metal accumulators. In the interpretation of the test results, the phytocumuling factor (PF) was also used. The degree of accumulation of heavy metals, from given forest areas - from soil to mushrooms - was assessed on the basis of determined PF coefficients. In addition, good bioavailability of the analysed analytes by mushrooms was found. Additionally, on the basis of the conducted studies, the possibility of mushroom consumption was assessed - they are not suitable for consumption due to the fact that the permissible concentration standards of heavy metals contained in mushrooms were exceeded.

Open access

Samir Bouzoualegh, El-Hadi Guechi and Ridha Kelaiaia

Abstract

This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) for a differential-drive mobile robot (DDMR) based on the dynamic model. The robot’s mathematical model is nonlinear, which is why an input–output linearization technique is used, and, based on the obtained linear model, an MPC was developed. The predictive control law gains were acquired by minimizing a quadratic criterion. In addition, to enable better tuning of the obtained predictive controller gains, torques and settling time graphs were used. To show the efficiency of the proposed approach, some simulation results are provided.

Open access

R. Kawiecka, A. Krawczyk, P. Lewińska, K. Pargieła, Stanisław Szombara, A. Tama, K. Adamek and M. Lupa

Abstract

The article presents comprehensive documentation of the situation of post-mining Miedzianka village (former town), which is located in Lower Silesia, in south-western Poland. Due to the long-term expansive mining exploitation since the 14th century, over time Miedzianka was completely destroyed and depopulated, thus nowadays, only a few inhabitants live there. The basis for the conducted research area were changes in land and urban structure that have been occurring for centuries in connection with mining operation of copper and uranium. The authors focused on presenting the changes using archival cartographic documentation, land surveying measurements and 3D modelling. That data allowed to determine on the ground specific sites related to mining operations, discover old urban buildings, performing their 3D models and finding places potentially threatened by continuous and discontinuous deformations. The combination of all the data allowed to present the full situation that occurred in Miedzianka.

Open access

Iuliana Maria Pârvu, F. Remondino and E. Ozdemir

Abstract

The VOLTA project is a RISE Marie-Curie action designed to realize Research & Innovation (R&I) among intersectoral partners to exchange knowledge, methods and workflows in the geospatial field. To accomplish its objectives, the main R&I activities of VOLTA are divided in four interlinked Work Packages with two transversal ones responsible for knowledge transfer & training as well as dissemination of the project results. The research activities and knowledge transfer are performed with a series of secondments between partners. The consortium is composed of 13 partners from academic & research institutions, industrial partners and national mapping agencies. The Romanian National Center of Cartography is part of this research project and in this article the achievements of the secondment at Bruno Kessler Foundation in Trento (Italy) are given. The main goal of the exchange was to generate level of detail - LOD2 building models in an automated manner from photogrammetric point clouds and without any ancillary data. To benchmark existing commercial solutions for the realization of LOD2 building models, we tested Building Reconstruction. This program generates LOD2 models starting from building footprints, digital terrain model (DTM) and digital surface model (DSM). The presented work examined a research and a commercial-based approach to reconstruct LOD2 building models from point clouds. The full paper will report all technical details of the work with insight analyses and comparisons.