Special requirements are placed on finishing materials and foundations for these materials. The technical datasheets for wooden floors contain detailed moisture guidelines regarding counter-floors for these materials. To check the moisture level, the carbide method (CM method) is recommended by manufacturers and many specialists. The authors of the paper performed moisture tests for various counter-floors (anhydrite and cement jointless floors, cement-sand mixtures) using the direct gravimetric (laboratory) method and the carbide method. Test results were collected and analyzed.
With respect to the fulfillment of the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy, the threat of poverty and social exclusion has not been sufficiently reduced in the European Union (EU) over the past decade, and large regional disparities persist. Young people are the most affected by the problems of income poverty, material deprivation and labour market exclusion, which are the three dimensions of poverty and social exclusion. In this article, we focus on comparing the EU countries in terms of the three listed dimensions, while revealing similarities and differences in the incidence and severity of these social phenomena among youth. In addition to measuring dimensions by the currently used AROPE (at risk of poverty or social exclusion) rate, we also use a larger spectrum of relevant indicators for a more comprehensive analysis. While the AROPE aggregate indicator uses the same methodology for the population of young people as for the whole population, our approach includes indicators that are specific to young people. We assume that all dimensions affect each other, so we apply multidimensional statistical methods such as principal components and cluster analysis to analyse them. These methods have revealed that some dimensions affect poverty and social exclusion to a greater extent and others to a lesser extent than might appear to be the case, based on AROPE’s partial rates. Moreover, we present quantified integral indicators that together with the results of the multivariate methods, provide a rather complex picture concerning the geographical distribution of poverty and social exclusion, as well as their dimensions in the EU, for the population of persons aged 18–24 years in 2008 and 2017.
The impact of statutory Sunday retail restrictions on the transport behaviours of people living in the Polish post-socialist city of Lodz is investigated in this article. One carrier of information on journeys undertaken in the city is data from induction loops – a part of the city’s Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The second source of data is a two-stage questionnaire survey (concerning trading and non-trading Sundays) of the city’s inhabitants, aimed at defining any changes in their transport behaviours with reference to the introduction of retail restrictions. The research was conducted to assess the way in which the new statutory restrictions affect transport behaviour discharged after the political transformation. The results of the research conducted on the transport behaviours of Lodz residents indicate that the majority of their transport behaviours clearly depend on whether a given Sunday is a trading or non-trading day. The traffic load of the urban road network (perceived as the manifestation of residents’ spatial mobility) is characterised by a distinct changeability due to the legislative restrictions related to Sunday trading. There is both a time (daily and hourly) differentiation of traffic flows and a spatial changeability of the load in the urban space, when a comparative analysis is conducted of the results of observations made in the weeks preceding trading and non-trading Sundays. The study also demonstrates that the time previously devoted to Sunday shopping is currently spent not only at home, but also allocated to new (and until now unperformed) activities that often require travelling.
The aim of the study was to characterize the components of crude oil, with particular emphasis on those that have a toxic effect on organisms, and to describe the sources of pollution and the methodology for determining these compounds in aqueous solutions. In addition, the study presents the legal provisions in the field of petroleum compounds and practical methods for their removal in the event of uncontrolled emission of these compounds into the aquatic environment as well as methods used in the treatment of wastewater loaded with these compounds.
Sustainable development of the built environment in developing countries is a major challenge in the 21st century. The use of local materials in the construction of buildings is one of the potential ways to support sustainable development in both urban and rural areas where burnt clay bricks are used predominantly. This work focuses mainly on the use of polypropylene micro fibers in ordinary Cellular Lightweight Concrete blocks. The main objective is to develop a high-performance fibre reinforced cellular concrete to provide a better alternative than clay bricks for structural applications of masonry. This paper presents the stress-strain behaviour of polypropylene fibre reinforced Cellular Lightweight Concrete stack bonded prisms under axial compression. Masonry compressive strength is typically obtained by testing stack bonded prisms under compression normal to its bed joint. Use of micro-fibres enhances the pre-cracking behaviour of masonry by arresting cracks at micro-scale in the post-peak region. These efforts are necessary to ensure that CLC blocks become more accepted in the world of building materials and considered as a reliable option for providing low-cost housing.
Today, much of the world’s waste, in particular used tires, is accumulating as a potential source of major environmental and economic problems. In order to better preserve the environment, and in the face of changes in the legislation in force, many recovery actions have been carried out especially in the field of building materials.
The present research aims to contribute to the study of the mechanical properties and durability of concretes based on rubber aggregates. To achieve this objective, we have contemplated incorporating therein amounts of rubber granules according to different volume substitution percentages being 10%, 17.5%, and 25%. A comparison of the results with a control concrete has been established.
The obtained results make it possible to demonstrate that the substitution of a percentage of sand by rubber granules decreases the mechanical strengths and increases the expansion in water. On the other hand, it improves the resistance to attack from H2SO4, Na2SO4, and seawater. The latter is evaluated by the loss and gain in mass as well as the loss in mechanical resistance, especially in the long term (more than 90 days), decreases drying shrinkage, thus decreasing microscopic cracks and providing better durability.
To assess the technical condition of a structure and design it using existing elements, it is necessary to know its parameters. For existing facilities, it is often not possible to get a sample of material and examine it directly in the laboratory. For this reason, in situ nondestructive testing is very important.
The main goal of the paper is to present the issues related to determining the strength parameters of a particular wood based on the non-destructive sclerometric test performed with a wood sclerometric hammer. The study also presents the results of the impact of pinewood density on its compressive strength.
Numerous studies have shown that the non-destructive testing has proved the exceptional role in supervising the quality of concrete. Today, they represent an alternative that contributes to the resolution of materials diagnostic problems without altering them. This work presents an experimental study using a pulse-echo method that has the advantage of generating two types of wave (compressional and shear) by a mode conversion using just one transducer. The samples were made in a prismatic form. The results recovered from backscattered echoes are extracted using an estimation algorithm. These data were exploited to determine velocities of the tested material then the reflection coefficients for related them with the compressive strength. The tests were conducted with six samples with varied water/cement ratio. The results obtained showed that the prism technique has the potential to evaluate characteristics cementitious material using this proposed process.
The article looks at the latest trends in solving the problem of garbage collection, segregation and disposal in urban housing estates in the scope of design, architectural and spatial solutions. The paper adopts a method of analysing existing applications in view of globally shifting living conditions. As a result of the conducted analyses, a set of features and factors was singled out, ranging from functional-spatial, through transport and ergonomic to social and aesthetic ones. Also, conclusions that should be taken into account when determining the principles for designing these structures were presented.
The present study focuses on the upper Neogene deposits, called the “Poznań Clays”, that cover more than 75,000 km2 of Poland. They are situated between the first mid- Polish lignite seam and the glaciogenic deposits of the Pleistocene age. Lithostratigraphically, the “Poznań Clays” belong to the uppermost portion of the lignite-bearing Grey Clays Member and the whole Wielkopolska Member (Poznań Formation). The examined fine-grained sediments include mud-rich floodplain deposits with palaeosol remnants and large sandy-muddy or muddy palaeochannel bodies. Therefore, taking into account facies analysis, cross-sectional geometry, and the planform of the palaeochannels, it can be stated that the “Poznań Clays” formed in the environment of a late Neogene anastomosing river.