One of the most important developments of modern economics is the concept of economic mechanism design. Mechanism design is the study of economic mechanisms that produce behaviors in public health. The concept has profound implications for management. Management involves the effective use of mechanisms to change behavior. Public health managers must have a strong background in sociology and psychology, negotiation, finance, economics, organizational theory, and leadership. All managers work with limited resources. Managers must understand finance and economics: budgets, investment in the Health Care system, accountability, investment return, optimization, and decision analysis. This feature creates unique challenges for educating and supporting public health managers. To advance public health management as a profession we must apply the basics of mechanism design to its challenges. Leadership science provides a base for development of managers’ personal skills and attributes. Many graduate programs in business management and public administration deal with public health management. Accordingly, application of mechanism design (economic, social and others) in public health management can help managers become more effective. Mechanism design in public health management could provide an important way to improve health of the population.