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Jacqueline Byrne, Tomás Dwyer and Declan Doyle

Abstract

Organisations with market-oriented cultures outperform other organisations. Thus, the creation of such a culture is paramount. This paper details how distinct layers of an organisation’s culture can in combination influence market-oriented behaviours. The importance of organisational culture in the successful implementation of a market orientation strategy has been recognised. However, an awareness of how the layers of organisational culture, such as values, norms and artefacts, can contribute to market-oriented behaviour is still under research. The layers of organisational culture were thus investigated in three mixed-method case studies of Irish companies utilising a questionnaire survey, interviews and observations. The core conclusion of the study is that the combined synergistic effect of the particular unique organisational cultural layers in a company encourages market-oriented behaviours. This research adds necessary details for managers who seek to develop and create a market-oriented culture to improve company performance.

Open access

Gabriel J. Costello

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on theories of the firm and argues for the importance of an innovation-based view (IBV). In doing so, it examines the incumbent management theories of the firm, resource-based view (RBV), knowledge-based view (KBV) and dynamic capabilities, considering the recent developments in the academic literature and in the nature of the firm. The research approach of abduction (conceiving of theory) proposed by Peirce and described by Van de Ven is used. A conceptual framework that incorporates the growing influence of information and communications technology and open innovation on the characteristics of the firm is developed. The managerial tradition that originated in the scholarship of Edith Penrose is used to develop the framework, as opposed to the lens of economic ‘black box’ theories.

Open access

Desmond Gibney and Martin Quinn

Abstract

This study details the management practices of a malting business called Bennetts of Ballinacurra (Bennetts), from approximately 1920s to the mid-1930s, a period when the Irish Free State was in its infancy. There is little extant literature on the management practices of Irish businesses of the time. Archival records, containing the company’s books, records and correspondence, were our primary source. Our findings revealed a relatively sophisticated management information system for which its merchant background and close connections to Arthur Guinness & Sons Ltd. (Guinness) were a potential explanatory factor. In addition, despite the business being small, the study revealed how management coped with issues such as business structure and industrial relations in a time of great political and economic change. There is scope for future research to utilise the archives of Bennetts, as well as other archives identified in our study.

Open access

Book Review on HR from the Outside In: Six Competencies for the Future of Human Resources

Dave Ulrich, Jon Younger, Wayne Brockbank and Mike Ulrich New York: McGraw Hill, 2012

Sarah Kieran

Open access

Chris O’Riordan

Abstract

This paper explores how general practitioners (GPs) address potentially opposing motivations stemming from being altruistic and self-interested, and the implications for patients and GPs. The author finds that GPs address dual goals of patient care and profit generation. This can be challenging, while professional values (altruism) encourage a patient focus, business realities (self-interest) mandate other priorities. Viewing clinicians as altruistic in isolation of business needs is unrealistic, as is the notion that profit is the dominant motivation. A blending of interests occurs, pursuing reasonable self-interest, patients’ best interests are ultimately met. GPs need a profit focus to sustain/improve the practice, benefitting patients through continued availability and capacity for enhancement. Therefore, it is argued that GPs behave in a manner that is ‘part altruistic, part self-interested’ and mutually beneficial. These insights should be considered in designing incentive systems for GPs, raising compelling questions about contemporary understanding of the nature of professionals.

Open access

Darragh Flannery and Tom Turner

Abstract

Over recent years pay levels in the public sector of the economy have come under increasing scrutiny. This paper provides an assessment of the key issues and challenges central to a comparison of wage levels in the private and public sector in Ireland. A review of the extant studies that have employed multivariate analysis to estimate the gap between public and private sector wages in Ireland indicates a wage premium in favour of public sector workers. However the actual magnitude of the earnings gap is difficult to accurately assess as the size of the premium varies markedly across these various studies. A number of possible options are suggested to guide the development of a fair system for assessing wage levels in the public sector.

Open access

Igor Fedorko, Radovan Bacik and Beata Gavurova

Abstract

Consumer behaviour analysis is a key aspect for the success of e-business. The main objective of the study is to analyse the impact of selected user experience factors on e-commerce web site visiting (technology). The objective of the study is to create a model that will explain the impact of each major factor on the user experience and the re-visit of the e-shop. To explain the use of e-commerce technology, in the second part we have modified the original technology acceptance model (TAM) with other constructs. Specifically, there are modern technologies such as social networks or mobile apps that affect the use of e-shops. The TAM model is one of the most used models of what the system uses to identify the perceived usefulness and perceived simplicity of use from the user’ side. For the main advantage of our study, we consider that we have highlighted the importance of the factor of modern technology and therefore of social networks, mobile applications and contextual advertising. This factor, along with the other two factors, has been incorporated into our model and has shown that modern technologies have a direct impact and are therefore directly related to the frequency using the e-commerce websites.

Open access

Florence Neymotin and J. Preston Jones

Abstract

While usually lauded, "empathic giving" may actually lead to suboptimal outcomes due in part to the enhancement of tribal sentiments in individual interactions, as well as by decisions driven more by emotional, rather than rational, considerations in the giving process. This point is linked to recent suggestions that government should reform social safety nets in order to decrease these negative interactions, and increase their efficacy. To this end, we use analyses of the September Supplements to the Current Population Survey in order to explore and find a negative change in individual-level volunteering subsequent to hurricanes Katrina and Ike, but not after hurricane Charley. We also find variations by region, and in particular, in "Deep Blue" states, as well as by whether individuals were located in the hurricane-affected states. Our findings are consistent with the notion that empathy may lead to more problems, including burnout and stratified giving, with implications for a public or private call to action.

Open access

Marcela Tittlová

Abstract

The neglect of seniors is a major problem of the society. In terms of various European documents, maltreatment is qualified as one of the forms of domestic violence. It is undoubtedly one of the latest forms we encounter in domestic violence. The generators of the attacks could be different family members as well as those who are responsible for the care of the seniors. In any case, it is a very negative social phenomenon even in the context of the constant aging of the population and in social and economic context. Seniors are a particularly vulnerable category of people, very similar to children. For this reason, this problem can be considered as an integral and inseparable part of the complex of domestic violence.

Open access

Ivana Blažková

Abstract

The paper aimed to contribute to the literature on the determinants of firm profitability, from the perspective of the Czech economy. We followed a multilevel/hierarchical approach towards the analysis of the sectoral and firm-level determinants of the profitability of companies operating in the Czech food processing industry during years 2005-2012 (622 Firms in 10 Sectors). We assessed an impact of industry (i.e. market concentration, sector growth rate and growth rate of imports) and firm-level characteristics (i.e. market share, firm age, firm size, number of employees, debt/equity ratio and short-term risk) on the return on assets (ROA). Surprisingly, there were no substantial differences between the separate models for industry and firm-level determinants and a combined one. We found a positive impact of market concentration and market share and a negative effect of age and risk-taking behaviour on a firm profitability. Based on these findings, managers in the Czech food and drink industry should pay more attention to the debt policy.