Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 1,248 items for :

  • Economic Theory, Systems and Structures x
Clear All
Open access

Witold Wiliński

Abstract

The aim of this article is an extensive presentation of the fiscal policy conducted by the EU states in the years 2008–2015. The analysis concerns the legal regulations introduced at the EU level by the European Parliament and the Council, as well as the fiscal policies of governments of particular states. The first part of the article analyzes basic macroeconomic data in EU states concerning the level of debt, the level of gross domestic product (GDP) redistribution, and the level of economic growth in the analyzed period. The second part discusses the legal acts adopted by the European Parliament and the Council (the so-called ‘sixpack’ and the European Fiscal Compact), aimed at improving macroeconomic balance and ensuring supervision over the proper functioning of national finances. The third part analyzes the discretionary fiscal policies pursued in EU states. The main conclusions of this article are as follows: (i) EU countries recorded higher national debt levels and debt growth rates between 2008 and 2015 than most non-EU Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries; (ii) despite legal measures taken by the European Council and the European Commission in the form of the sixpack and the European Fiscal Compact, and despite discretionary fiscal measures such as in the form of the European Economic Recovery Plan, five EU countries (Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain) have experienced a steady increase in their national debt levels; and (iii) deep reforms in the composition and level of government expenditure are a prerequisite for reducing national debt levels and for achieving satisfactory economic growth in these countries.

Open access

Tomasz Sosnowski and Anna Wawryszuk-Misztal

Abstract

Using a sample of 104 companies that conducted initial public offering (IPO) on the Warsaw Stock Exchange between 2006 and 2016, we investigated the relationship between the accuracy and bias of the earnings forecast disclosed in the IPO prospectus and the firm corporate governance attributes. Applying multiple Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regressions models, we focused on the role of the board size, the percentage of women on the board, the board age diversity measure, and the proportion of shares owned by the members of the board. Generally, our findings show that some characteristics of management and supervisory board improve the usefulness of earnings forecasts’ credibility. Especially, a more diversified board in terms of age and higher management ownership results in more accurate forecasts. This is the first study giving an insight into the role of supervisory and management board characteristics on precision of earnings forecasts revealed in the prospectus by Polish IPO companies.

Open access

Beáta Farkas

Abstract

A growing literature examines institutional arrangements in Central and Eastern European (CEE) market economies. Some sources claim that there is a distinct model of capitalism in this region. This paper overviews and analyzes the results of these studies in connection with crucial methodological issues showing the limitations of institutional analysis. Despite all methodological difficulties, with a combination of different methods, institutional comparison is able to provide essential insights into the position and future prospects of CEE member states. One of the most important insights is that the maintenance of economic convergence to Western European countries requires substantial institutional changes. This paper also suggests that a broader historical context can help to evaluate opportunities and the risk of path dependency. It seems fruitful if the current development is fit into the conceptual framework which conceives of CEE as the region of “in-betweenness,” where the legacy of incomplete modernization attempts hinders the optimal institutional arrangement.

Open access

Krzysztof Jasiecki

Abstract

The purpose of the article is to characterize selected theoretical and methodological advantages, controversies, and limitations of the varieties of capitalism (VoC) approach in application to Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. It indicates the reasons for the usefulness of such an approach for the study of postcommunist capitalism in the region. The application of the VoC is considered as going beyond the dominant approaches to systemic changes in CEE in the 1990s, such as the strategy of neoliberal economic reforms and the “transitology” prevailing among political scientists and sociologists who referred to democratic patterns of change in Southern Europe. After a decade of reforms, due to different trajectories of development in the countries of the region, such interpretations lose their explanatory power. Other ways of analyzing transformations in CEE have become needed. The need for new theoretical inspirations has also been strengthened by the European Union (EU) accession of the same postcommunist countries. The accession has generated a search for a new language of description and analyses of institutional changes in all the countries of the enlarged Union. In this context, the VoC approach seems to fill the theoretical vacuum left by the end of the “transition” debate in the political research on CEE and provides a major post-transition research agenda and has also built a bridge between discourses which were previously separated in the political economy, neo-institutional approaches, economic sociology, and political sciences. The key advantages of the VoC approach are presented, which made these perspectives influential among researchers of institutional changes in postcommunist countries. The theoretical and analytical framework, classifications, typologies, clusters, indexes, indicators, and so on are tested and widely applied as well. Selected weaknesses and limitations of the VoC approach in the application to CEE are also analyzed. Their manifestation is the confusion associated with the use of various classifications of models of capitalism and the functionalistic character of the VoC focusing on explaining the results, but not the causes of the institution’s activities, as well on institutional determinism diminishing the significant role of the social factors of change.

Restricted access

Ivan Todorov, Kalina Durova and Aleksandar Aleksandrov

Restricted access

Ivan Todorov, Kalina Durova and Aleksandar Aleksandrov

Full access

Ivan Todorov, Kalina Durova and Aleksandar Aleksandrov

Open access

Ryszard Rapacki and Adam Czerniak

Abstract

The main aim of this paper was to shed a new empirical light on the nature and most salient features of the evolving postcommunist capitalism in 11 Central and Eastern European (CEE11) countries against the backdrop of Western European models of capitalism. The research approach capitalizes on the conceptual framework put forward by Amable [2003, The diversity of modern capitalism, Oxford University Press, Oxford] , i.e., it seeks to identify the current clusters or models of capitalism in 25 European Union (EU) countries in six institutional areas. However, in contrast to the original Amable’s methodology, the subspace clustering method was used, what allowed to take into account a vast set of 132 institutional measures and to analyze their change between 2005 and 2014. The main finding is that CEE11 countries developed their own distinct model of capitalism dubbed “patchwork capitalism.” In all but two areas, i.e., product market competition and financial intermediation, postcommunist countries form their own institutional clusters that are substantially different from those observed in Western EU countries. In addition, the paper shows that each CEE11 country followed its own distinct vector of change, which eventually led to a unique patchwork of institutions. Yet, the institutional variance within the region is smaller than the difference between CEE11 countries and other country clusters in the EU.

Open access

Piotr Maszczyk

Open access

Andreas Nölke

Abstract

Can comparative capitalism (CC) assist us in understanding both the rise and the current challenges of emerging market capitalism? This article applies analytical instruments developed in CC scholarship on emerging markets to address this question. During the last two decades, CC scholarship – defined by common features such as the emphasis on institutional contexts that are sticky and most important at the national level – has evolved considerably. This contribution to the third generation of this scholarship highlights the degree of international economic integration as the central strategic choice to be faced by emerging economies. It does so by systematically comparing dependent market economies of East Central Europe with the state-permeated economies of China, India and Brazil. The core finding is that both types of capitalism have been able to mobilize substantial institutional complementarities during the last three decades but will face considerable economic and political challenges in the years ahead.