Browse

1 - 10 of 1,509 items :

  • Economic Theory, Systems and Structures x
Clear All

Abstract

This article analyzes the institutional architecture and the level of similarity between the social protection system in 11 new EU member states from Central and Eastern Europe and chosen Western European countries, representing four different models of capitalism identified by Amable. In the selected institutional area, a comparative analysis was performed, and based on it, similarity hexagons were created. They serve the purpose of comparing Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries with Western European countries of reference. The dynamic approach adopted in this study—two different time periods were compared—allows an analysis of path dependence and the evolution of institutional architecture over time. The analysis indicates that in 2014, in the area of social protection, almost all CEE countries, apart from Latvia and Romania, were most comparable to the Continental model of capitalism represented by Germany. Nevertheless, the variety of results for the individual variables (especially input and output variables) and substantial changes between 2005 and 2014 also show that the model of capitalism prevailing in Central and Eastern Europe in the area of the social protection system is evolving constantly at a very fast pace and thus currently may be called a hybrid or even patchwork capitalism.

Abstract

This article concerns the determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) outflow from India to Poland with some insights to other European countries. This topic strongly relates to globalization of foreign trade and especially new economic initiatives between European Union (EU) and India, which was one of the first countries to develop trade relations with EU. According to CEIC data – Financial Data and Economic Indicators, India’s FDI outflow increased slightly to 1.4 billion USD in September 2019 in comparison with 996.5 million USD in September 2018, but it is still below the average of 1.8 billion USD for a period of 2007–2019.1 Very limited number of the scientific research can be found in European literature about India’s FDI outflow to EU countries in period of 2004–2019. Indian economists made some research on that topic. Professor J. Ramachandran (listed among the Best Management Thinkers for the year 2015, the first Bain Fellow in India) from Indian Institute of Management Bangalore in 2004 and Professor Jaya Prakesh Pradhan from Central University of Gujarat in 2008 explored the evolution in Indian outward FDI, referring to a shift in the pattern of overseas expansion and basis of competitiveness of Indian companies. The key point of this article is to explain what really triggers Indian investors to go to Poland and what kind of businesses they form. Some examples of the Indian-based companies are mentioned to support the analysis. The author of this article also researched on different governmental bilateral trade agreements and initiatives, trying to find any direct impacts of that on the India FDI outflow to Poland and other EU countries. He used empirical method of the analysis based on accessible data and literature in that topic and also direct interviews with private Indian investors who made decision to start and run their business in Poland or other EU countries.

Footnotes

Abstract

Labour market reforms have been undertaken to eliminate labour market rigidities in European countries since 1970s. The important features of the reforms are the reduction in adjustment costs and the introduction of fixed-term contracts (FTC). Some empirical studies point out that employment fluctuations have become more volatile after the reforms. This paper presents a model with FTC and analyzes the effects of the key features of the reforms. Numerical examples show that an expected productivity shock causes the oscillatory behaviour of employment. Moreover, a reduction in adjustment costs amplifies fluctuations. In the labour market literature, a number of studies point out the importance of trade unions in European countries. This paper also analyzes the effects of union influence, and the numerical examples indicate that the stronger union influence leads to larger employment fluctuations.

Abstract

Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of death worldwide. Proper estimation of car accident risk is critical for the appropriate allocation of resources in healthcare, insurance, civil engineering and other industries. We show how images of houses are predictive of car accidents. We analyse 20,000 addresses of insurance company clients, collect a corresponding house image using Google Street View and annotate house features such as age, type and condition. We find that this information substantially improves car accident risk prediction compared to the state-of-the-art risk model of the insurance company and could be used for price discrimination. From this perspective, the public availability of house images raises legal and social concerns, as they can be a proxy of ethnicity, religion and other sensitive data.

Abstract

This article aims to quantify the institutional similarities between industrial relations systems in 11 Central and Eastern European countries (CEE11), on the one hand and each of the four models of capitalism in Western Europe identified by Amable [2003], on the other hand. The comparative analysis was performed on the basis of six variables. Three of them represent inputs or institutional determinants of industrial relations. Another three variables represent outputs or the labor market performance. For each variable, the similarity coefficients between CEE11 countries and four reference EU15 economies representing Western European models of capitalism were calculated. Based on these coefficients, the hexagons of similarity were built.

The analyses led us to some general observations. In 2005, most of the countries in the region developed industrial relations systems similar to the continental model, what can be interpreted as a strategy to meet the requirements imposed on these countries in the process of European integration. After accession, most of the countries abandoned “social partnership” ship and started the cruises to the Anglo-Saxon model.

Abstract

The high-technology sector has a particular importance in the development of modern national economies. It affects both the level of competitiveness and innovation. This was a prerequisite for the study to assess the competitive position of the advanced technology sector in the European Union (EU) countries. The starting point of the discussion was the definition of the concept of competitiveness, the competitive position of the advanced technology industry, and the classification of the high-tech sector. Based on the selected indicators, the competitive position and the rank of countries have been established. As for this, the indicators of the export share of the advanced technology sector in the intra-export market, the profitability of the high-tech sector, and the degree of export–import coverage were used. Based on the adopted indicators, a synthetic indicator of a competitive position has also been calculated which enabled determination of the most competitive country in the EU in reference to the industry. This enabled the identification of factors influencing the competitive position of the advanced technology sector in the EU member countries.

OPEN ACCESS

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to examine the changes that have occurred after Poland’s integration into the European Union (EU) internal market for services after 2004 considering the legal changes adopted in the EU relating to the free movement of services, namely, the Service Directive. An examination of the Directive’s outcome and the development of the market integration process permit the conclusion that the changes in regulatory trade barriers have had a relatively limited impact on the changes that have occurred in EU–Polish ties concerning services trade. These were predominantly shaped by structural and macroeconomic factors. From an analysis of the structure of Poland’s services trade, a picture emerges of a deepening asymmetry between the exports and imports sides of Poland’s participation in the internal market.

Abstract

The aim of this article is to determine the current state of impact of various forms of intangible assets on the internationalization process. For the purpose of the paper meta-analysis was adopted as a method of the study. English-language peer-reviewed journal articles were analyzed only with the help of: EBSCOhost, ScienceDirect, Emerald, JSTOR, ProQuest and Wiley Online databases. The search was aimed at newest papers (after 2012), however some older articles (with regard to their value) were included in the analysis as well. Based on the conducted analysis, there was observed a significant and positive link between the level of employee education and internationalization probability and extent. The effect of the wages on internationalization is stage dependent. Under certain assumptions there is a positive and strong relationship between R&D intensity and internationalization. Advertising spending do not foster the process of internationalization. The practical contribution of this research is twofold. First, it provides valuable insight for practitioners which intangible assets and how foster various modes of the internationalization process. Second, it describes upon which conditions the interrelation between firm intangible assets and internationalization is significant and positive.

Abstract

So far, very little attention has been paid to the roles of foreign subsidiaries located in Poland and if or how these roles have evolved. Simultaneously, there exists strong empirical justification for assuming these roles have been evolving over the years. Through a literature review and empirical case study of a foreign subsidiary located in Poland, this study analyzes the evolution of the subsidiary role and indicates its relations with groups of external and internal determinants. The case study examines a 10-year period of operations of a foreign subsidiary active in the automotive industry. The results indicate that the evolution of the subsidiary role encompasses factors such as markets served, functional areas of operations, and complexity of operations. The presented case study describes the complex relations among factors related to the subsidiary, HQ, and environment concerning the evolution of the subsidiary role.