Tembi M. Tichaawa and Sakhile Moyo
This study examines the perceptions of urban residents towards the socio-economic and environmental consequences of tourism development in Zimbabwe. Perceptions were tested using empirical data that were gathered from a sample of 384 adult members, representing urban households in Bulawayo. The results from a semi-structured survey revealed that such sociodemographic variables as gender, education, length of stay and income are relatively predictable of their attitude towards tourism. Further, although the urban residents tended to perceive tourism impacts positively, they reacted more strongly to the environmental impacts involved than to the economic and sociocultural impacts. The urban geographic context of this study makes this finding significant, as it indicates that urban residents have an environmental consciousness with regard to tourism. The study has implications for tourism development planners and destination managers, in terms of enhanced engagement with the urban residents regarding tourism development, irrespective of the likelihood of residents supporting future development.
Łukasz Damurski, Jacek Pluta, Karel Maier and Hans Thor Andersen
Local service centres play a vital role in shaping the quality of life in urban neighbourhoods. They offer access to essential everyday services (shops, education, healthcare, personal services) and to public spaces. If they are properly planned and managed, they can bring particular added values to a local community, such as social integration and territorial identification. The history of urban planning has produced several patterns of local service centres (ancient agora, mediaeval market square, neighbourhood unit, modern agora) but today a question arises: how can a local service centre be successfully planned and organised in post-modern political practice? How can its potential be realised and the ever-changing needs, expectations and preferences of local communities be met? Who should be involved in those processes? To answer those questions in this paper we refer to citizen participation and public communication concepts, where selecting the appropriate stakeholders emerges as a necessary starting point for effective urban governance. We present the results of in-depth interviews with local actors (local authorities, municipality officials, town planners, non-governmental organisations, local leaders) in Poland (Wrocław, Siechnice, Ostrów Wielkopolski, Warszawa and Zabierzów), Czech Republic (Prague) and Denmark (Copenhagen). Depending on the specific local context, various stakeholders are perceived as essential to the decision-making process. The power relations and problems encountered in implementing public policy in particular locations have been summarised in three sections: relationships between stakeholders, leadership, and good practices. The paper concludes with a list of typical actors who should be involved in planning, building and managing a local service centre in an urbanised neigh-bourhood.
Cletus Famous Nwankwo
The return of democratic rule in 1999 after many years of military intervention has left some electoral geographic imprints on Nigeria: voting pattern has varied over this period. This paper analyses the pattern of voter choice homogeneity (VCH) and tests the effect of religion on VCH in the presidential elections of the fourth Nigerian republic from 1999 to 2015. The study found that some economic indicators have a positive and significant effect on VCH from the 2003 election but were all insignificant and with a negative impact in the 2015 election. The influence of religion on VCH was negative in the 1999 election but remained positive in subsequent elections and had an increasingly upward trajectory signifying the snowballing importance of faith in citizens’ political choices at the presidential polls. The analysis shows that the pattern of VCH in 1999 was random, but clustered from 2003 to 2015, although the 2011 geographical clustering of VCH was dissected and the 2015 pattern was regionalised. Thus, the article argues that voting patterns structured Nigeria’s political landscape from a random to clustered but dissected electoral landscapes to a clustered but regionalised mi-lieu of a nation of two voting worlds. The pattern of a nation of two voting blocs was witnessed in the 2015 election, in which the VCH sharply depicts the religious cleavage of the country and to some degree also depicts ethnic fault-lines.
Ali Soltani, Rasoul Balaghi Inaloo, Mohammad Rezaei, Fatemeh Shaer and M. Akbari Riyabi
Providing appropriate and equal healthcare to the various classes of society is among the major issues in social welfare. The spatial distribution and locating of health service centres are significant in addressing the healthcare needs of citizens. This issue needs to be evaluated using quantitative and qualitative approaches throughout those cities with high populations and activity density levels. By taking Isfahan metropolitan area as the case study area, in this study, a combination of Network Analyst tool within Geographic Information System (GIS) and an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model was used to evaluate the catchment areas of the 26 existing hospitals within the study area. Thus, with effective data collection in the form of layers of information such as transportation network, population density, land use, etc. using (GIS), the authors categorised urban land in seven categories from poor to very good for the construction of hospitals. The result of analysis indicated that existing hospitals covered approximately 24% of active urban areas within a standard access time. The result can be used for policy making and healthcare planning.
Iwona Murawska, Beata Przyborowska, Violetta Kopińska and Piotr Błajet
The article presents and analyses data on the educational potential of schools in relation to settlement type in Poland. On the example of two types of schools – successful and requiring help – their distribution was shown in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship. For this purpose, data from the Educational Value Added (EVA) index for voivodeship schools were interpreted. On this basis, it was determined what type of school the branches represent, and then classification and analysis was made for the village/city and the number of inhabitants. The results show that the educational potential of rural schools is lower than that of schools in cities. The results were interpreted on the basis of theories of cultural reproduction, bearing in mind the importance of settlement type for the construction of cultural capital.
Aleksandra Lewandowska and Daniela Szymańska
The goal of the paper is to evaluate and analyse changes in selective municipal collection, recycling level, and recovery, of waste. The article indicates the Polish legislation currently in force to systematise the organisation of waste management systems. It presents the participation of selective waste collection in the total municipal waste at the voivodeship scale, as well as changes in the number of individually segregated fractions (i.e. categories of waste segregation) of selectively collected waste in Poland. Moreover, the levels of waste recycling and recovery were analysed for the country’s ten largest cities, while also showing that the cities implement accepted goals of municipal waste recovery. On the example of Warsaw, the structure of collected waste was discussed and attention was paid to the problem of quality of collected waste, which results in it being sent to sorting facilities.
Isaiah Sewanu Akoteyon
Access to water is vital for sustainable human socio-economic development. The study examined factors affecting households’ access to water supply in three residential areas in parts of Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. A random sampling technique was employed to administer questionnaires to 200 households. The study area was delineated into residential types using the grid method. The result shows the dominance of improved water sources in the high/medium-income residential areas. Households in the medium-income area recorded the highest access in terms of distance to, and safety of water supply. The factor analysis explains 77.41% of the variance with three components, namely: water access, demographic and economic attributes. The results of the analysis of variance reveal three significant variables, namely: main water source, income and cost, which is significant at p<0.01. The regression equation model obtained is given as Y = 2.059 + 0.307MWS + 0.286INM + 0.164CST. The study concluded that main water source, income and cost are the factors affecting access to water supply in the study area. The study recommends investment in water infrastructure, giving a higher priority to low-income residential areas for improved healthy living and sustainable socio-economic development.
Fiona Drummond and Jen Snowball
Theory suggests that cultural and creative industries (CCIs) cluster in cities where levels of socio-economic development are higher and where they can take advantage of the city’s hard and soft infrastructure. However, some South African rural areas and small towns have identified CCIs as potential economic drivers. This paper investigates the relationship between the presence of CCIs in non-metropolitan spaces and levels of socio-economic development using a municipal level socio-economic status index and GIS mapping. The results show a positive relationship between larger numbers of CCIs and higher levels of development. It is suggested that a threshold level of development must be met before CCIs will cluster in an area and become a viable option for promoting local economic development.