Studies on the adsorption of Pb(II) on plantain peels biochar (PPB) was conducted. The carbonized and activated, biochar was characterized using Braunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and x-ray diffraction crystallography (XRD). BET analysis of the PPB indicated that the pore size (cc/g) and pore surface area (m2/g) was 8.79 and 16.69 respectively. Result of the XRD evaluated through Debye-Scherrer equation, showed a nanostructure with crystallite size of 14.56 nm. Effects of initial metal ion concentration, pH, and contact time were studied in a batch reaction process. Results showed that the adsorption of lead from aqueous solution increased with an increase in pH and initial concentration. Equilibrium modeling studies suggested that the data fitted mainly to the Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption kinetic data tested using various kinetic models fitted the Weber and Morris intraparticle diffusion model implicating pore diffusion as the main rate limiting step. The sorption studies indicated the potential of plantain peel biochar as an effective, efficient and low cost adsorbent for remediating lead (II) ions contaminated environment.
Hormonal changes in humans and animals can be attributed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Studies have found that excessive exposure to natural and artificial environmental chemicals and toxins can have adverse effects on the endocrine system and reproductive health. The endocrine system creates and releases hormones that regulate the development of organs and how they function. Any disruption to hormones affects the development and functioning of the reproductive system, the brain and the neurological system. Research and reports on the subject have been published by international experts and organizations including the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), International Labour Organization (ILO) and Endocrine Society. To fully comprehend the effect of EDCs on humans and wildlife, it is essential to understand epigenetics and its transgenerational effects on hormone development. Here, we extensively explore and review the research on the sources of EDCs, their effects and why exposure to EDCs is of concern, and treatments for EDC exposure.
Single cell supercapacitors with electrodes of varying amounts of graphene and carbon black, formed via the electrospinning process with a carbon-based Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), were tested in 1M H2SO4. From the tested samples, the overall data indicates no correlation between impedance and capacitance energy values. However, the breakdown of the various samples showed mixed results of; good correlations between lower impedance resulting in higher and lower capacitance; while other samples showed higher impedance correlating to both higher and lower capacitance. No correlation was observed between the Impedance value and the thickness of the samples. Furthermore, carbon mole content was not a major factor in determining impedance; therefore, structure is not a major contributor to impedance. Whereas, carbon mole content is a major contributor to capacitance energy; Hence, impedance provides an alternative control point to increasing energy ( 2-10X times ), that can be retrofitted to existing systems, or to increase the energy storage beyond current levels by adjusting/controlling impedance in new designs. The data is indicating impedance is not constant and is varying. The mechanism of varying impedance is unclear and requires further research. However, it is thought to mimic the energy level and stability of matter (atoms). Therefore, impedance varies or oscillates accordingly to achieve an impedance level stability, and hence the term “Orbital Impedance Stability”. Thoughts into Impedance being an Energy Field, to be provided in next publication (In-sha’-ALLAH). This research is concluding that our conventional understanding of impedance is limited in scope. New approaches and further research is needed to better understand impedance behavior. A better understanding of impedance is essential to a breakthrough in energy storage devices from capacitors and batteries, to electric generation and distribution of energy, to magnetic levitation, medical drugs and other energy improvements.
An experiment was carried out to study the effect of post-harvest dipping and various packaging materials on quality traits of mandarin at the laboratory of Project Implementation Unit (Citrus zone) Udayapur, Katari from January to February 2019. The parameters observed were physiological loss in weight, juice content, titrable acidity, total soluble solids, TSS/TA ratio and shelf life. The packaging materials include individual newspaper wrapping, perforated polyethene and corrugated box. Gibberellic acid with a concentration of 100 ppm was used as a dipping material. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 8 treatment replicated 3 times. The result showed that among eight treatments combination, fruits treated with GA3 in combination with perforated polyethene recorded minimum physiological loss in weight (1.99%) and control (19.08%). High retention of juice content (40.30%), total soluble solids(12.83 brix) and titrable acidity (0.60%) was recorded in fruits treated with GA3 in combination with perforated polyethene in 24 days of storage. Fruits treated with GA3 in combination with perforated polyethene attained shelf life of 48 days followed by perforated polyethene with a shelf life of 44 days. Finding of the experiment may prove to be helpful in rural area to store mandarin with minimum loss as markets are far from the village.
This research conducted with the fully fresh, ripe and sound tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was collected then washed, peeled, seeds removed and transferred to the juice extractor. Sugar, preservatives were added to the extracted filtrated juice. Then the juice was heated, cooled and bottled for preservation. Tomato juice was prepared with three different treatments. Among the three treatments T1, T2 and T3 sample were prepared with no preservative, Na-benzoate preservative and potassium meta-bisulphite (KMS) preservative respectively. The organoleptic observation of this tomato juice was studied for 60 days storage period. Chemical analysis and sensory tests were carried out during the 30 days at an interval of 15 days to assess the effect of chemical additives on the shelf life of tomato juice. Negligible Change in chemical constituents except vitamin C was observed in the prepared juice throughout the 30 days storage period. Color was gradually faded and slightly off flavor develops at the end of the storage periods. The treatment T2 secured highest score for color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability and ranked as “Like very much” by a taste testing panel. Tomato juice prepared with no preservative (T1) spoiled after 45 days storage and juice prepared with KMS preservative (T3) spoiled after 60 days storage. Total number of viable bacteria was highest in tomato juice treated with no preservative (T1) and KMS preservative (T3). Tomato juice with Na-benzoate preservative (T2) contained least viable bacteria which was better than T1 and T3 sample. Considering all the parameters, Na-benzoate tends to be better additives than potassium meta-bisulphite (KMS) for preservation of tomato juice.
Immobilization of enzymes is a good field of study to extend the life of enzyme and reduce the cost of the chemical processes, such as separation processes. Urease is an important enzyme with medical and industrial applications. The aim of the present study is to prepare an immobilized urease on a strong cation exchange resin (Amberlite IR120 Na) and study its activity and stability. We monitored the release of Na ions in the collected fractions and searching for enzyme in the fractions as indicators of immobilization by ion exchange phenomenon. Sodium is determined by using atomic absorption spectroscopy technique, while the enzyme concentration was tested by Bradford’s method. Immobilized urease activity was evaluated by salicylate-hypochlorite method. The results indicated a complete immobilization of urease enzyme on the resin surface with reserving 92% of the activity of free enzyme. The immobilized urease enzyme on resin showed good stability and it has a 62% of its activity after 154 days of storage at room temperature. It is concluded that a new immobilized urease enzyme system is prepared with good enzyme activity and stability.
Starch is acryloylated and copolymerised without incorporating any vinyl monomer such as acrylic acid or acrylonitrile monomers to produce a superabsorbent copolymer. Fenton’s initiation system was used to produce polyacryloylated starch ester with varying degree of substitution. The copolymer from starch ester exhibited improved solubility, and an impressive water, saline, and solvents uptake. The superabsorbency of the samples is affected by the number of acryloyl groups on starch backbone. The starch ester with degree of substitution 0.8 had the highest water absorbency (102 g/g) in this experiment. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses were used to characterize the products.
Tartaric acid is generally not an effective soil washing solution, hence this study focuses on enhancing its usage for soil-Pb decontamination. Three tropical soil types (sandy, clay and loamy) with different lead concentrations were subjected to single batch washing using 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 M tartaric acid with 5% and 10% KCl modification at 3% soil-pulp-density for 2, 6, 12 and 24 h washing time. The optimum washing conditions were 1 M tartaric acid at 24 h washing time, with Pb removal efficiency: sandy- 94.3%, clay-67.6% and loamy-36.8%. Modification of tartaric acid with 5% and 10% KCl brought about some degree of enhancement of Pb removal efficiency especially for clay and loamy soils. Removal efficiency for 5% KCl modification were: sandy-97.9%, clay-96.2% with 1 M tartaric acid at 24 h washing time, loamy-76.7% for 0.5 M tartaric acid. Similarly, 10% KCl modification were: sandy-96.7%, clay-97.2% for 1 M tartaric acid at 24 h, loamy-82.1% for 0.5 M tartaric acid. Removal efficiency was soil concentration dependent. Generally, removal efficiency increased with increasing tartaric acid concentrations and washing time. Tartaric acid washing is promising and recommended in events of moderate contamination and 10% KCl modification in event of high level contamination. Further study is needed on enhancing very low concentrations of tartaric acid for large scale applications.
The objective of this work was to compare the extraction of phenolic compounds from Tilia argentea flowers and bracts by using conventional (solvent extraction) and novel (ultrasound assisted) extraction methods. Ethanol (70 %) extracts were analyzed for their antioxidant activities. Total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antioxidant potential was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays. To determine the effect of ultrasound treatment on the extraction, same extraction parameters were applied in both methods. The results showed that extracts obtained by ultrasound assisted extraction have higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity.