The ingestion of aluminum from food containers such as cookware, cans, utensils and wrappings and its subsequent release into the environment is a growing public health concern. Aluminum is widely used in manufacturing cookware due to its malleability, high heat conductivity, light weight, durability, availability and affordability. This paper therefore gives a review of most relevant literatures on the benefits and risks of the various types of aluminum cookware in use, the composition and the public health effects of aluminum ingestion. Studies that reported the leaching of aluminum from cookware into food and environmental effects of aluminum leaching were also reviewed. In the developing countries, aluminum cookwares are produced from scrap metals and has been reported to leach harmful substances including heavy metals such as: nickel, arsenic, copper, cadmium, lead, and aluminum into cooked food. Several factors have been reported to increase the rate of leaching of metals from aluminum cookwares. Exposure to metals from aluminum cookware and the public health effects have not been well studied, hence, our recommendation for more studies to elucidate the health effect of this practice. This review also presents measures that can limit exposure to the risks that may arise from the use of aluminum cookware.
The volume of pharmaceuticals discharged into the environment increases daily as a consequence of human life. In the present study, the seasonal variation of ibuprofen in sediment, biota, water, and their exposure risk were investigated in River Owena and Ogbese, Nigeria. The high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to analyze the samples after clean up and pre-concentration by solid-phase extraction. The mean concentration of IBU in the samples spanned a range of 1.75 - 2.75 μg/g in sediment, 0.01 – 15.00 μg/g in fish, and 0.00002 – 0.005 μg/ml in water. The measurement of IBU in the sediment and water was significantly elevated in the dry season than the wet season, whereas the opposite was the case in biota. There was a significant interaction between season, media, and rivers with respect to IBU occurrence in the sampled rivers. The calculated bio-water accumulation factor (BWAF) was as high as 750,000 μg/g in fish, proving IBU is extremely bio-accumulative. The ecotoxicological risk assessment for average and worst possible outcome showed that the risk quotient (RQ) for IBU present in the water was sufficient to cause toxicity to fish in both freshwater bodies. The potential bioavailability of IBU to aquatic fauna for prolonged periods spanning several months can result in its circling back into the food web afterward. The baseline info provided by this study in these freshwaters may provide valuable information for the implementation of safety limits for the management of IBU influx into the environment.
The combination of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs: lamivudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and efavirenz is among the preferred first-line regimens for adolescents and adults infected with HIV. However, knowledge on in vivo genetic and reproductive toxicity of each of these drugs and their combination is limited. We evaluated the genotoxicity of lamivudine, TDF, efavirenz and their combination utilizing the mouse micronucleus (MN) and sperm morphology tests. Histopathological analysis of the testes of exposed mice was also carried out. 0.016, 0.032, 0.064 and 0.129 mg/kg bwt of lamivudine, TDF and the combination; and 0.032, 0.064, 0.129 and 0.259 mg/kg bwt of efavirenz corresponding to 0.125, 0.250, 0.500 and 1.000 x the human therapeutic daily dose (HTD) of each of the ARVs and their combinations were administered to mice for 5 consecutive days. Data on MN showed a significant increase (p ---lt--- 0.05) across the tested doses of TDF, efavirenz and the combination, with the combination inducing lower frequency of MN than TDF and efavirenz. Lamivudine did not evoke significant induction of MN. Significant increase in frequency of abnormal sperm cells were observed in the tested samples, however, the combination induced the highest number of abnormal spermatozoa. The ARVs and their combination induced pathological lesions such as vacuolation and necrosis in mice testes. These findings suggest that the individual ARVs and their combination are potentially capable of activating genetic alterations in the bone marrow and germ cells of male mice thereby raising concern for long term use by HIV patients.
This paper assessed in-vehicle and ambient pollution levels from vehicles along Ilorin-Lagos highway covering three distinct 3-hour periods (morning, afternoon and evening) of the day (from 7.30 am to 6.30 pm) along with reported health challenges at six (6) settlements (SP1-SP6) that covered four (4) states. In the case of ambient pollution, Gilair-3 air sampler (GAS) was used to measure sulphur (iv) oxide, (SO2) while ALTAIR 5x Multi-gas Detector (AMD) was used to measure both carbon (ii) oxide, (CO) and sulphur (iv) oxide, (SO2) for all scenarios. Vehicular volume was manually conducted to determine the number of vehicles. Questionnaire was used to assess information on the health challenges faced by the commuters. The concentrations of SO2 ranged from 0.142 - 0.550 ppm (ambient) and 0.037 - 0.097 ppm (in vehicle) using AMD and GAS respectively while CO concentration was between 2.289 - 18.055 ppm using AMD. The results for the in- vehicular pollution revealed that the concentration levels obtained for CO and SO2 inside the vehicles were 6.32 ppm and 0.126 ppm under opened-window condition and 9.53 ppm and 0.274 ppm under closed-window condition respectively (without air condition). The SO2 concentrations obtained from both ambient and in-vehicle were found to be much higher when compared with the FEPA standards; SO2 (0.01 – 0.1 ppm), USEPA standards; SO2 (0.075 ppm) while the CO level obtained from in-vehicle under the two scenarios (opened and closed windows) were below the limit of NESREA standards (10 – 20 ppm) and USEPA standards (35 ppm). Having noticed that these pollutants act under different environmental conditions, the work established statistical evidence that traffic volume affected the pollutants concentrations at most of the sampling points and that the higher the traffic, the higher the emissions and the more the risk of health challenges.
Studies reveal that not up to 50% of earthworm species have been described in the world and the understanding of earthworm diversity is finite in most countries including Nigeria. The study was aimed at evaluating the diversity of earthworms and environmental factors affecting their abundance. Earthworms were collected from three (3) different sampling locations in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Descriptive statistics and estimation of species abundance, dominance and diversity were used to analyze the data obtained from the study. From the study, four (4) species of earthworms were identified and recorded from the three sampling locations. Eudrilus eugeniae (54.9%) was the most abundant species followed by Hyperidrilus africanus (20.3%), Libyodrilus violaceous (19.6%) and Alma millsoni (6.3%) with the least abundant species. The result of the diversity indices showed Science village (1.13) as the most diverse habitat followed by Emelda hostel (0.86) and Boys’ hostel (0.84) with the least diversity of species. Soil pH ranged from 2.25 to 4.06 and total organic matter ranged from 14.10 to 16.36%. Soil temperature was uniform with an average value of 27°C for the three sampling locations. The soil moisture content ranged from 11.19 to 14.12%. The conductivity recorded the lowest value (25.60μS/cm) in Emelda Hostel and highest value (111.8 μS/cm) in Science village. The study provided understanding into the patterns of earthworm populations in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka and the need for the conservation of earthworm diversity. Better understanding about habitat and living conditions of earthworms is required to provide suitable and enhanced production of vermicompost in different geographic conditions.
In this treatise, we examined the activities of researchers of Nigeria descent in the frontier areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology, with a focus on green nanotechnology. The exploration of literature published by scholars were reviewed and compartmentalized on the basis of applications of the nanomaterials. It can be concluded that the level of activities in this area is expanding owing to the emergence of more published works since the beginning of 2010. However, in comparison with research outputs from other developing African countries such as South Africa and Egypt, activities in green nanotechnology are still at low ebb in Nigeria. Issues that are contributory to the slow pace were identified and appropriate solutions in terms of improved funding of education, enactment of national policy on nanotechnology, curriculum development, international cooperation as well as human resource development among others were discussed.
Asa river is a major river designated to supply millions of people of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria potable water for drinking but its managements is of grave concern due to anthropogenic activities. Thus, evaluation of genotoxicity of this river was carried out by subjecting the water samples and fish therein to three bioassays (Micronucleus (MN) assay, Ames test and SOS-chromo test). Physicochemical parameters and heavy metals were analysed at three different stations (Aliara (SI), Unity (SII) and Tuyil (SIII)) of the river. In SII, most of the heavy metals analysed were above the acceptable limits compare to SI and SIII. The peripheral erythrocyte of the fishes (Oreochromis niloticus, Synodontis batensoda, Synodontis eupterus, Clarias gariepinus and Clarias angullaris) at SI and SII stations showed a significant (p<0.05) induction of MN and different nuclear abnormalities (NA). Water samples from the three stations subjected to Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium TA100) and SOS chromotests (Escherichia coli PQ37) at 25%, 50% and 100% concentrations showed statistically significant (p<0.05) induction of DNA damage at all concentrations in the two tester strains, thus indicating base-pair substitution mutation and excision-repairdeficient, respectively, by the water samples. Therefore, drinking of this water and/or consumption of fish from this river should be taken with caution to avoid a carcinogenic risk.
The development of an African native language-based programming language, using Yoruba as a case study, is envisioned. Programming languages based on the lexicons of indigenous African languages are rare to come by unlike those based on Asian and / or European languages. Availability of programming languages based on lexicons of African indigenous language would facilitate comprehension of problem-solving processes using computer by indigenous learners and teachers as confirmed by research results. In order to further assess the relevance, usefulness and needfulness of such a programming language, a preliminary needs assessment survey was carried out. The needs assessment was carried out through design of a structured questionnaire which was administered to 130 stakeholders in computer profession and computer education; including some staffers and learners of some primary, secondary and tertiary educational institutions in Oyo and Osun states of Nigeria, Africa. The responses to the questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The analysis of the responses to the questionnaire shows that 89% of the respondents to the questionnaire expressed excitement and willingness to program or learn programming in their mother tongue-based programming language, if such a programming language is developed. This result shows the high degree of relevance, usefulness and needfulness of a native language-based programming language as well as the worthwhileness of embarking on development of such a programming language.
In this study, the potential DNA damage and reproductive toxicity of sorbitol was investigated using bone marrow micronucleus (MN), sperm morphology, and sperm count in mice. Five doses of 90, 45, 20, 10 and 1 mg/kg/day, defined by allometry, and approximately corresponding to 1.5g, 750mg, 330mg, 165mg and 16mg of sorbitol daily consumption by a 70kg human, respectively, were used. MN analysis showed a dose-dependent induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and other nuclear abnormalities across the treatment groups. Assessment of sperm shape showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in sperm abnormalities with significant (p < 0.05) decrease in mean sperm count in treated groups. The result of the oxidative stress biomarkers showed induction of significant (p < 0.05) increase in liver catalase, MDA and serum ALT and AST activities with concomitant decrease in SOD activities in exposed mice. A significant increase in weight of exposed mice were recorded when compared with the negative control. The results of this study showed the genotoxicity and reproductive effects of sorbitol.
Synthetic flocculants in water treatment have been reported to be detrimental to both human health and the environment. Thus, there is a constant search for bio-flocculants that is safe and addresses the effects of synthetic polymers. This study was aimed at isolating bacteria with bio-flocculating potential, their molecular identification and phylogenetic relatedness, and the optimization of their flocculating abilities from an open water (Asa River) in Ilorin Kwara State. The effect of carbon source (glucose, lactose and starch), cations (FeSO4, KCl and CaCl2) and pH (2 to 12) was evaluated on the bio-flocculating activities of the isolates using kaolin clay. The seven (7) novel (new strains) isolates with their respective accession number from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) after molecular confirmation are Pseudomonas otitidis MTK01 (MK263227), Aeromonas caviea MTK02 (MK263228), Providencia alcalifaciens MTK03 (MK263229), Providencia sp. MTK05 (MK263230), Alcaligenes sp. MTK06 (MK263231), Klebsiella pneumoniae MTK07 (MK263232) and Klebsiella sp. MTK08 (MK263233) while Raoultella ornithinolytica MTK04 was also identified. Phylogenetic tree of relatedness showed close kin of the isolates to established bacteria sequence deposited at the NCBI GenBank. Although the flocculating rate of each isolates varied with different parameters that was used in the study, glucose was the most supportive followed by lactose and starch, CaCl2 was most supportive cation followed by KCl and FeSO4 while pH 12, 6, 8, 10, 2 and 4 were the order of decreasing flocculating rate of the medium. This study has reported the presence of eight (8) bio-flocculating bacteria (out of which 7 are new strains of bacteria) in an open water which has been further optimized for effective flocculating rate and thus provides an ecofriendly and harmless flocculants source that can be employed in water treatment procedures.