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Open access

Arne Riekstiņš

Abstract

Article focuses on the workflows for generating new hybrid material explorations for architectural application through development of new strategies of applying parametricism as one of the main driving forces in the design that exercises novelty through 3D modeling and visual programming languages. The obtained results have been applied in series of material design experimental sample projects that challenge the standard geometries and enhance the field of applicative materials for architectural application.

Open access

Anna Staniewska

Abstract

Securing green infrastructure is crucial to maintaining the quality of life in cities therefore it is necessary to create new public green spaces responding to the needs of city dwellers. This paper provides a qualitative evaluation of the results of teaching the process of public participation to landscape architecture students from Politechnika Krakowska including such activities both preceding and during their work on the design of public parks. In this paper the author describes the rationale behind introducing participative planning into academic education and its theoretical background, as well as comparing the local perspective with examples of successful participative projects in the broader European context and the context of international trends in landscape architecture and urban planning in general. Both the teaching methodology and participation tools used are presented, referring to the methods already in use in practice and highlighting the fact that the teaching goes far beyond the legal minimum foreseen in Polish legislation. Finally, based on a summary of their experiences and case studies, particular fields of impact observed in the practical implementation of their projects are identified. Taking all this into consideration, it may be stated that from the moment when landscape architecture graduates started working for the public authorities in Kraków and making use of their knowledge and skills in public participation, the quality of public involvement has risen and the number of parks realised via this process is growing.

Open access

Stefania Środa-Murawska, Leszek S. Dąbrowski and Paweł Smoliński

Abstract

Social participation allows public authorities to learn about communities’ views and thus to jointly work out satisfying solutions. The pre-1989 law in Poland generally prevented the possibility of citizens taking part in the making of decisions about the use of public areas. Over the following years participatory decision-making was adopted, which evolved and expanded as new tools were introduced which encourage citizen involvement. The municipality of Toruń adopted a participatory approach to budgeting in 2014 so that the city’s residents could influence the use of public land in their neighbourhoods according to their needs. The total amount of funding spent on participatory budgets between 2014 and 2017 exceeded PLN 26 million. The aim of the study is to prepare a typology of desired changes in the city of Toruń and to identify the level of social participation on the basis of projects nominated for financing from the participatory budget. To this end, the types of projects and the turnout of the residents who voted were analysed by place of residence. The study showed that both the number of nominated projects and the number of voters increased in the years covered by the survey, thus pointing to the success of participatory budgeting, a form of schooling in local democracy, in Toruń.

Open access

Natalia Bursiewicz

Abstract

In Poland, the last 15 years have been marked by various, numerous regeneration projects of historic cities that were supposed to improve the citizens quality of life and their security, as well as to create an attractive tourist offer. Those programs were often focused on the renewal, reshape and modernization of public squares. Such changes never go unnoticed. On contrary, these are frequently associated with criticism, debate and disagreements. The research has been focused on the analysis of regeneration projects from selected Market Squares in historic cities and town centres in Lower Silesia. The main aim was to exhibit the medieval origin of those squares and recently introduced contemporary layout. Moreover it was to present diverse opinions regarding square’s form and function, that can be crucial in understanding the architects, planners and citizens’ points of view and their ‘feelings’ towards the space.

Open access

Krystyna Ilmurzyńska

Abstract

This article investigates the suitability of traditional and participatory planning approaches in managing the process of spatial development of existing housing estates, based on the case study of Warsaw’s Ursynów Północny district. The basic assumption of the article is that due to lack of government schemes targeted at the restructuring of large housing estates, it is the business environment that drives spatial transformations and through that shapes the development of participation. Consequently the article focuses on the reciprocal relationships between spatial transformations and participatory practices. Analysis of Ursynów Północny against the background of other estates indicates that it presents more endangered qualities than issues to be tackled. Therefore the article focuses on the potential of the housing estate and good practices which can be tracked throughout its lifetime. The paper focuses furthermore on real-life processes, addressing the issue of privatisation, development pressure, formal planning procedures and participatory budgeting. In the conclusion it attempts to interpret the existing spatial structure of the estate as a potential framework for a participatory approach.

Open access

Krystyna Pawłowska

Abstract

The idea of public participation in spatial management finds an ever-expanding number of supporters and implementers in Poland. An increasing number of references to the subject are incorporated in Polish acts of law and other legal regulations. Despite progress in the field, the status quo cannot be considered satisfactory. Acceptance an idea does not always go hand in hand with skill in applying it. The reason for the many failures and misunderstandings are the defects and errors in the methods of its application as well as false representations concerning the whole idea and its constituent parts. Far from being clear, at face value cases of participation occurring in this context may meet the requirements and yet bring none of the expected benefits. A caricature of participation, they discourage further attempts. This article presents a list of defects, shortcomings, flaws, errors, and myths that make the implementation of participatory projects difficult, if not impossible.

Open access

Łukasz Drozda

Abstract

The objective of the article is to present the assumptions of the gentrification approach, which allows one to assess the impact of public spatial actions undertaken by various actors in the process of social production of space. The study proposes a research methodology that distinguishes the social, economic and spatial dimensions of gentrification. The author makes use of source literature on the subject of gentrification and public policy theories as well as the results of the author’s gentrification research conducted in Warsaw, New York and Istanbul on examples of places that were planned using various types of participatory techniques. The study performs the operationalisation of the measurement of gentrification as a useful analytical tool in policy science.

Open access

Martin Barthel and Ewelina Barthel

Abstract

This paper focuses on the largely unexamined phenomenon of the developing trans-national suburban area west of Szczecin. Sadly the local communities in this functionally connected area struggle with national planning policies that are unsuitable for the region. The paper examines the impact of those processes on the border region in general and on the localities in particular. The paper investigates the consequences for local narratives and the cohesive development of the Euroregion and what position Polish and German communities took to develop the region, even without the necessary planning support. The region has succeeded in establishing grass-roots planning mechanisms which have helped to create a metropolitan-region working from the bottom up.

Open access

Alisa Koroļova and Sandra Treija

Abstract

The concept of urban gardening varies a lot in terms of gardening forms and main purposes. Followed by changes in people life style, growing interest in healthy living and sustainable urban development, the aims of urban gardening become more complex. The product of urban garden, e. g. vegetables or ornamental plants, nowadays plays less important role, as the main focus is on societal issues, urban regeneration, education and health. Thus, this article provides evidence of multi-functionality of urban gardening to address the variety of societal issues across people of different age and cultural background. Case studies from Malmo, Birmingham and Riga show how urban gardening contributes to social integration, inhabitants’ well-being and urban regeneration.

Open access

Sandra Treija, Uģis Bratuškins and Alisa Koroļova

Abstract

Urban regeneration with a view to efficient use of urban areas has been a strategy for urban development for decades. Densification is used as a planning approach to promote the implementation of the compact city model and to discourage urban sprawl. The central parts of the city are usually of high density, so the areas outside the city’s historic centre are seen as potential sites for urban densification. In many European cities large-scale residential areas built after the Second World War occupy a significant part of the territory outside of the city’s historic centres. Today, these housing areas are in most cases sleeping areas with great potential for development. Densification of urban areas outside of urban nuclei is not an easy task, and deals with a whole series of challenges.

The paper examines the existing approaches focused on densification in large housing estates. In order to define the typical challenges of this process, the examples of infill developments in large housing area Imanta in Riga are analysed. The analysis of infill development in Imanta showed four possible approaches. Some approaches contribute to the improvement of public space for neighbourhood inhabitants in general, still some approaches tend to isolate the new development and inhabitants from the surrounding territory.