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Open access

Khereddine Boutebba, Ali Bouamrane, Nawel Ganaoui and Mohamed T. Bouziane

Abstract

This article presents the results of a survey using a questionnaire conducted in Algeria, to evaluate the quality of public drinking water service, and at the same time the level of dissatisfaction / satisfaction of the subscribers. A statistical analysis of the data has been conducted on a representative sample of general population to identify weaknesses and strengths related to the current state of water management. The assessment of the quality of service, and the quality of water, as well as the price of water under the influence of the geographical distribution of the population was also studied.

The results of the statistical analyses show a wide variability regarding the level of dissatisfaction/satisfaction of the subscribers. In order to simplify the interpretation, we gathered the results in the form of classes and groups in such way that the cities appear on GIS mapping software, with their inhabitants’ degree of satisfaction.

Open access

M.G.Y.L. Mahagamage, Pavithrani S. Manage and Pathmalal M. Manage

Abstract

In Sri Lanka, among 2588 Salmonella positive cases, the highest incidences were recorded from Jaffna peninsula during 2005 to 2013. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the microbiological and chemical contamination status of groundwater (40 well water) sources in Jaffna during November 2016. The total coliform, E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. along with some physico-chemical parameters of groundwater were studied. The results revealed that entire peninsula was contaminated with total coliform and E. coli bacteria and the parameters recorded were not within the WHO and SLS (Sri Lanka Standards) drinking water quality standards. 38% of sampling locations were positive for Salmonella spp. and among them six sampling locations were being used for drinking purposes. The results of the study correlates with the statistics of typhoid cases recorded in Jaffna. Results of the study also revealed that around 80% of wells were not within the values specified in guidelines of the SLS for drinking water quality on electrical conductivity. Further, 15% of wells recorded greater than 10 mgꞏdm–3 nitrate, which is still below the SLS drinking water standards (45 mgꞏdm–3). According to the water quality data, PCA analysis showed that Jaffna town, Nallur, Tellippalai and Kopay DS divisions has similar characteristics for water quality.

Open access

Tembi M. Tichaawa and Sakhile Moyo

Abstract

This study examines the perceptions of urban residents towards the socio-economic and environmental consequences of tourism development in Zimbabwe. Perceptions were tested using empirical data that were gathered from a sample of 384 adult members, representing urban households in Bulawayo. The results from a semi-structured survey revealed that such sociodemographic variables as gender, education, length of stay and income are relatively predictable of their attitude towards tourism. Further, although the urban residents tended to perceive tourism impacts positively, they reacted more strongly to the environmental impacts involved than to the economic and sociocultural impacts. The urban geographic context of this study makes this finding significant, as it indicates that urban residents have an environmental consciousness with regard to tourism. The study has implications for tourism development planners and destination managers, in terms of enhanced engagement with the urban residents regarding tourism development, irrespective of the likelihood of residents supporting future development.

Open access

Noureddine Merniz, Ali Tahar and Amine M. Benmehaia

Abstract

In the present study, time series for annual, monthly rainfall and number of rainy days per year were analysed to quantify spatial variability and temporal trends for 22 rainfall stations distributed in northeastern Algeria for the period 1978–2010. The Mann–Kendall test and the Sen’s slope estimator were applied to assess the significance and magnitude of the trend. The results showed that precipitation decreases spatially from North to South and from East to West. The application of the Mann–Kendall test (for 0.05% threshold) to the time series data showed that for annual precipitation, no station showed statistically significant trends, unlike the number of rainy days, where there was a significant negative trend in four stations (Jijel, Constantine, Oum El Bouaghi and Tébessa). For the monthly time series, significant positive trends were observed during the months of September in the coastal stations and July for the plateaus and southern Saharan Atlas stations, while significant negative trends were recorded during the months of February and March for the stations of the extreme East in the study area. These results revealed that for the period analysed, there was no significant climate change in northeastern Algeria but there is a seasonal delay having important agroecological implications.

Open access

Łukasz Damurski, Jacek Pluta, Karel Maier and Hans Thor Andersen

Abstract

Local service centres play a vital role in shaping the quality of life in urban neighbourhoods. They offer access to essential everyday services (shops, education, healthcare, personal services) and to public spaces. If they are properly planned and managed, they can bring particular added values to a local community, such as social integration and territorial identification. The history of urban planning has produced several patterns of local service centres (ancient agora, mediaeval market square, neighbourhood unit, modern agora) but today a question arises: how can a local service centre be successfully planned and organised in post-modern political practice? How can its potential be realised and the ever-changing needs, expectations and preferences of local communities be met? Who should be involved in those processes? To answer those questions in this paper we refer to citizen participation and public communication concepts, where selecting the appropriate stakeholders emerges as a necessary starting point for effective urban governance. We present the results of in-depth interviews with local actors (local authorities, municipality officials, town planners, non-governmental organisations, local leaders) in Poland (Wrocław, Siechnice, Ostrów Wielkopolski, Warszawa and Zabierzów), Czech Republic (Prague) and Denmark (Copenhagen). Depending on the specific local context, various stakeholders are perceived as essential to the decision-making process. The power relations and problems encountered in implementing public policy in particular locations have been summarised in three sections: relationships between stakeholders, leadership, and good practices. The paper concludes with a list of typical actors who should be involved in planning, building and managing a local service centre in an urbanised neigh-bourhood.

Open access

Rustinsyah Rustinsyah and Ratna A. Prasetyo

Abstract

The fostering and empowerment of water user associations (WUAs) has been regulated by the Minister of Agriculture since 2012. However, the implementation of this guideline varies. Some water user associations have achieved improvement, while some others have not. This study discusses how a WUA in the villages that use Bengawan Solo River water has successfully managed the irrigation. One of the factors leading to the success of this WUA is the stakeholder engagement in the agricultural irrigation management and farm business. This study was conducted from June 2016 to June 2017 by employing a qualitative approach. It aimed to identify and understand the stakeholder engagement in agricultural irrigation management by: 1) conducting an analysis on stakeholder power and interest indices, 2) mapping the positions, responsibilities, and obligations of stakeholders, and 3) identifying the stakeholder engagement in agricultural irrigation management. The research results are as follows: a) the analysis using Likert scale showed that the power index reached a value of 0.76, while the interest index reached a value of 0.78; b) the mapping of internal stakeholders, especially the responsibilities and obligations, has been regulated under the Articles of Incorporation of WUAs and obligations of external stakeholders, especially the government in making government regulations, irrigation infrastructure support, and flood prevention; c) cooperation of the stakeholders has an important role in the agricultural irrigation management and in solving the problems faced by WUAs.

Open access

Cletus Famous Nwankwo

Abstract

The return of democratic rule in 1999 after many years of military intervention has left some electoral geographic imprints on Nigeria: voting pattern has varied over this period. This paper analyses the pattern of voter choice homogeneity (VCH) and tests the effect of religion on VCH in the presidential elections of the fourth Nigerian republic from 1999 to 2015. The study found that some economic indicators have a positive and significant effect on VCH from the 2003 election but were all insignificant and with a negative impact in the 2015 election. The influence of religion on VCH was negative in the 1999 election but remained positive in subsequent elections and had an increasingly upward trajectory signifying the snowballing importance of faith in citizens’ political choices at the presidential polls. The analysis shows that the pattern of VCH in 1999 was random, but clustered from 2003 to 2015, although the 2011 geographical clustering of VCH was dissected and the 2015 pattern was regionalised. Thus, the article argues that voting patterns structured Nigeria’s political landscape from a random to clustered but dissected electoral landscapes to a clustered but regionalised mi-lieu of a nation of two voting worlds. The pattern of a nation of two voting blocs was witnessed in the 2015 election, in which the VCH sharply depicts the religious cleavage of the country and to some degree also depicts ethnic fault-lines.

Open access

Ali Soltani, Rasoul Balaghi Inaloo, Mohammad Rezaei, Fatemeh Shaer and M. Akbari Riyabi

Abstract

Providing appropriate and equal healthcare to the various classes of society is among the major issues in social welfare. The spatial distribution and locating of health service centres are significant in addressing the healthcare needs of citizens. This issue needs to be evaluated using quantitative and qualitative approaches throughout those cities with high populations and activity density levels. By taking Isfahan metropolitan area as the case study area, in this study, a combination of Network Analyst tool within Geographic Information System (GIS) and an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model was used to evaluate the catchment areas of the 26 existing hospitals within the study area. Thus, with effective data collection in the form of layers of information such as transportation network, population density, land use, etc. using (GIS), the authors categorised urban land in seven categories from poor to very good for the construction of hospitals. The result of analysis indicated that existing hospitals covered approximately 24% of active urban areas within a standard access time. The result can be used for policy making and healthcare planning.

Open access

Iwona Murawska, Beata Przyborowska, Violetta Kopińska and Piotr Błajet

Abstract

The article presents and analyses data on the educational potential of schools in relation to settlement type in Poland. On the example of two types of schools – successful and requiring help – their distribution was shown in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship. For this purpose, data from the Educational Value Added (EVA) index for voivodeship schools were interpreted. On this basis, it was determined what type of school the branches represent, and then classification and analysis was made for the village/city and the number of inhabitants. The results show that the educational potential of rural schools is lower than that of schools in cities. The results were interpreted on the basis of theories of cultural reproduction, bearing in mind the importance of settlement type for the construction of cultural capital.

Open access

Chokri Bedoui

Abstract

This study was conducted with a view to quantifying soil erosion in arid lands of Tunisia. To do this, we have opted to use the RUSLE model based on geographic information systems. By collecting data on rainfall, soils, vegetation, slopes and conservation practices separately as a layer and determining the pixel values for each of these factors, a quantified assessment of erosion in the basin is obtained. The data superposition and computing, following the model equations and protocol, allowed us to know the spatialized water erosion values at the pixel level. For the whole catchment, the study showed values oscillating between 0 and 163 Mgꞏha−1ꞏyear−1 with an average annual rate of 3 Mgꞏha−1ꞏyear−1. With such a low R (rainfall erosivity) factor (between 21.43 and 21.88 MJꞏmmꞏha–1ꞏh–1ꞏyear–1) itself related to low monthly and annual rainfall amounts, the region experiences locally very high annual erosion rates. Soil protection through conservation practices has saved the basin from even higher erosion. While plains cultivated and equipped with contour benches often suffer from low rates of erosion (less than 2 Mg·ha–1·year–1), unused slopes are neglected without protection, resulting in significantly high rates of erosion.