Browse

You are looking at 81 - 90 of 92,292 items for

Open access

Sergio Magdaleno, Elisabet Lacarra, Carlos de la Casa, Manuel López, Roberto Roldán and Nuria Blanco

Abstract

The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) augments the open public service offered by the GPS in Europe making suitable the use of GPS for safety critical applications. EGNOS is designed according to the same standard [ICAO SARPs, 2018] such as US WAAS, Japanese MSAS, GAGAN in India, SDCM in Russia and KAAS in South Korea and provides over Europe both corrections and integrity information about the GPS system. As the European SBAS, EGNOS offers three services: Open Service, Safety-of-life Service and EDAS. In general, the EGNOS Safety-of-life (SoL) Service is intended for transport applications in different domains (and currently in use by Aviation) where lives could be endangered if the performance of the navigation system is degraded below specific accuracy limits without giving notice in the specified time to alert. This requires that the relevant authority of the particular transport domain determines specific requirements for the navigation service based on the needs of that domain.

Even if the main objective of the SBAS systems is the civil aviation community, the advantages provided by this technology are very useful to users from other domains. In this sense, a new EGNOS service for maritime is currently under development with the objective to complement the existing maritime radionavigation systems (e.g. DGNSS) in the European region for enhanced accuracy and integrity information where there is no backup infrastructure or in poorly covered environments.

One of the steps needed for the development of this new EGNOS maritime service is the definition of a minimum set of recommendations for receiver manufacturers to provide them with a clear view on how to design their SBAS receivers to be compliant with the requirements defined for such a service. For that, EC, GSA, ESA and ESSP SAS have been working together since 2016 to develop guidelines for manufacturers for the implementation of SBAS in shipborne receiver. These guidelines, developed in the frame of the SBAS Working Group created in the Special Committee (SC) 104 on Differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (DGNSS) of Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services (RTCM), define a minimum set SBAS messages to be compliant with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Resolution A.1046 and additionally provide a test specifications.

This paper presents a summary of these SBAS guidelines as well as the preliminary list of tests that must be fulfilled to be compliant. Additionally, a preliminary performance assessment of the EGNOS maritime service based on IMO Res. A.1046 (27) for a 24-months period during 2016, 2017 and 2018 is presented. The performance parameters are calculated using real data to show what level of performance was attained by EGNOS. The assessment was done using both EGNOS ground monitoring stations (RIMS) and fault-free receivers, based on these guidelines, fed with actual data. The performance is shown for each performance parameter defined in the IMO Res. A.1046 (27) and for navigation in Ocean Waters and coastal waters, harbour entrances and harbour approaches. The paper also includes Service Coverage maps representing where EGNOS maritime service based on IMO Res. A.1046 (27) is fulfilling the requirements.

Furthermore, GSA and ESSP, with the collaboration of The Norwegian Coastal Administration and Hurtigruten Cruises, carried out a GNSS data collection campaign of 10 days along the Norwegian coast with a trajectory through Trondheim to Kirkenes and Kirkenes to Bergen in February 2018. The aim of this data campaign was to assess EGNOS performance at user level in the maritime domain at high latitudes in Europe. The data campaign includes the navigation outside the MT27 region defined in EGNOS at that moment (70ºN). A performance assessment of EGNOS using some commercial receivers and a software receiver in line with the SBAS guidelines will be presented, showing the observed accuracy and availably results of the EGNOS solution.

Open access

Janusz Ćwiklak, Kamil Krasuski and Marek Grzegorzewski

Abstract

The article presents the results of the aircraft Cessna 172 positioning based on navigation solutions in the GPS and EGNOS (SBAS) tracking mode. The article makes a comparison of coordinate readings of the Cessna 172 in the ellipsoidal BLh frame. The verification of the coordinates of the aircraft Cessna 172 was used to assess the reliability of the GNSS satellite technique in aviation. In a research test, the navigation data were recorded by the onboard receiver Thales Mobile Mapper during an air test performed over the military aerodrome EPDE in Dęblin. Judging by the conducted investigations, it is possible to conclude that the difference in BLh coordinates of the aircraft Cessna 172 on the basis of the GPS solution and EGNOS (SBAS) solution equals, respectively: from −0.5 m to +3 m for component B; and from −2 m to +6 m for component L; from approximately −11 m to over +1 m for component h. In addition, the paper defines factors of dilution of precision PDOP, based on the GPS and EGNOS (SBAS) solutions. The average value of the PDOP coefficient for a solution in the tracking GPS mode was 2.7, whereas in the EGNOS (SBAS) tracking mode, it was equal to 2.8.

Open access

Jae Hee Noh, Gwang Hee Jo, Deok Won Lim, Jin Hyuk Lee, Sun Yong Lee and Sang Jeong Lee

Abstract

Research on precise positioning is being actively carried out to provide accurate position information for land transportation. The most significant problem when performing precise positioning in urban canyon is the degradation of performance due to the lack of visible satellites. Prior to open service of BDS, most of the studies on positioning were focused on using GPS/GLONASS integrated navigation system. Since BDS began open service, studies using GPS/BDS have been actively performed in the Asia-Pacific region as it became possible to acquire enough available BDS satellites. The average number of visible satellites in Korea is 9 for GPS and 14 for BDS. In this paper, we analyze the availability of precise positioning using BDS in urban canyon. To do this, we simulate the urban canyon environment by applying the mask to the azimuth and the elevation. We analyze the positioning accuracy using two simulation scenarios. From the results, it is shown that the accuracy of precise positioning in the case where the satellites in the east-west direction are blocked is lowered than that in the case where the satellites in the south-north direction are blocked for the same elevation mask angle. This result comes from the fact that the PDOP increases when the satellites are blocked in the east-west direction. Also, it can be confirmed that the GPS/BDS integrated positioning is available for the high mask angle while the GPS-only positioning is not possible continuously.

Open access

Oskar Mężyk, Michał Doligalski and Ryszard Rybski

Abstract

In the work a method of latency measurement in software defined radio (SDR) is proposed and validated. The test setup uses customer grade GNSS modules as reference time sources and enables relative delay calculation between signals received directly and those bypassed through SDR platform. The method is hardware agnostic in a sense, that it does not involve any custom software or hardware modifications. Tests that compare reported carrier-to-noise ratio and positioning errors were performed to prove functionality of such system. Additionally, authors measured several gnuradio blocks with respect to their impact on total latency introduced into signal path. All tests were performed on a bladeRF low-cost RF front-end. Minimum observed latency for the signal was below 10 ms.

Open access

J. Vázquez, E. Lacarra, J. Morán, M.A. Sánchez, A. González and J. Bruzual

Abstract

EDAS (EGNOS Data Access Service) is the EGNOS internet broadcast service, which provides free of charge access to the data collected and generated by the EGNOS infrastructure. EDAS disseminates over the Internet, both in real time and via an FTP archive, the raw data of the GPS, GLONASS (no commitment on GLONASS data is provided (1)) and EGNOS GEO satellites collected by the receivers located at the EGNOS reference stations, which are mainly distributed over Europe and North Africa. The EDAS services offer several types of GNSS data in various protocols and formats, such as DGNSS corrections. This paper reports on the results of some in-field tests conducted by ESSP and Topcon Agriculture to confirm the suitability of EDAS DGNSS corrections for precision farming in Europe.

The European Commission (EC) is the owner of EGNOS system (including EDAS) and has delegated the exploitation of EGNOS to the European GNSS Agency (GSA). EDAS service provision is performed by ESSP, as EGNOS Services Provider, under contract with the GSA, the EGNOS program manager.

In the ENC 2018 article “EDAS (EGNOS Data Access Service): Differential GPS corrections performance test with state-of-the-art precision agriculture system”, ESSP and Topcon Agriculture presented the results of the first in-field test conducted in a dynamic and real-life environment in the summer of 2017. The test results indicated that the EDAS DGNSS corrections could enable a reliable pass-to-pass accuracy performance for a wide range of precision agriculture applications and become an attractive solution for cereal farms, when the farm is located in the vicinity of an EGNOS reference station. In particular, Topcon Agriculture acknowledged that the observed performance was sufficient to support the following precision agriculture applications: spraying and spreading of any crop type, tilling and harvesting of cereal.

Then, ESSP and Topcon Agriculture engaged in additional testing activities to further characterise the EDAS DGPS performance in different scenarios (i.e. at various European locations and with a variety of distances between the designated farm and the target EGNOS reference station).

In each test, multiple runs with the rover tractors have been performed over the reference patterns predefined in the Topcon guidance systems. Data recorded during the tests has been analysed in detail, looking at the key performance indicators (e.g. cross track error and pass-to-pass performance) that characterize the EDAS DGPS performance for precision agriculture applications. Different techniques for the computation of the pass-to-pass accuracy performance have been used, including a procedure to measure live in the field and a post-processing alternative. The diversity of scenarios available allows drawing conclusions on the applicability of EDAS DGPS corrections (in terms of maximum distance from the target EGNOS station) for precision agriculture and also understanding the impact of operationally relevant aspects such as the quality of the mobile internet coverage (highly variable across Europe).

The EDAS system and its architecture, the main types of data disseminated through EDAS services and the online information available to the EDAS users are introduced in this paper. In particular, the EDAS Ntrip service is described in detail, since it provides the differential corrections to the GPS and GLONASS satellites at the EGNOS reference stations in RTCM format, which are the basis for the present study.

The article also reports on the results of the latest tests, which have been performed using Topcon receivers, vehicles and auto-steering systems. In all cases, two different Topcon guidance systems on board tractors were running simultaneously to assess the EDAS DGPS positioning performance with respect to a the reference provided by a top-performing RTK-based Topcon solution.

The objective of this paper is to draw conclusions on the use of EDAS DGPS corrections as a reliable free-of-charge alternative for precision farming in Europe (especially for cereal farms), based on the available performance results from the testing campaign and the feedback from the involved precision agriculture experts.

Open access

Edwin Williams and Yan Jin

Abstract

Standard Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) systems take state data from a navigation system and create a trajectory that minimizes some a-priori determined cost function. These cost functions are typically time, money, weight, or any general physically realizable quantity. Previous work has been done to show the effectiveness of using risk as the sole objective function. However, this previous work used Poisson distributions and historical estimates to achieve this goal. In this paper we present the situation-risk assessment (SRA) method contained within the intelligent situation assessment and collision avoidance (iSC) platform. The SRA method uses data clustering, and pattern recognition to create a historically based estimate of guidance probabilities. These are then used in data driven, dynamic models to create the future probability fields of the situation. This probability, along with the other agent’s goals and objectives, are then used to create a minimum risk guidance solution in the nautical environment.

Open access

Marcin Mąka and Piotr Majzner

Abstract

The paper presents an analytical-diffraction propagation model for the needs of the Radiocommunication Events Management System, for coast and ship radio stations in sea area A1. The V-wave propagation in sea area 1 has been analyzed as part of an analysis of ranges of particular radio stations and their ability to establish radio contact. The theoretical basis and assumptions on which the model structure design process is based have been presented. Methods of modelling and presentation of dislocation of particular radio stations and their ranges have been discussed.

Open access

Iñigo Adin, Paul Zabalegui, Alejandro Perez, Jaione Arrizabalaga, Jon Goya and Jaizki Mendizabal

Abstract

Even though satellite-based positioning increases rescue workers’ safety and efficiency, signal availability, reliability, and accuracy are often poor during fire operations, due to terrain formation, natural and structural obstacles or even the conditions of the operation. In central Europe, the stakeholders report a strong necessity to complement the location for mixed indoor-outdoor and GNSS blocked scenarios. As such, location information often needs to be augmented. For that, European Global Navigation Satellite System Galileo could help by improving the availability of the satellites with different features. Moreover, a multi-sensored collaborative system could also take advantage of the rescue personnel who are already involved in firefighting and complement the input data for positioning.

The Autonomous Indoor & Outdoor Safety Tracking System (AIOSAT) is a multinational project founded through the Horizon 2020 program, with seven partners from Spain, Netherlands and Belgium. It is reaching the first year of progress (out of 3) and the overarching objective of AIOSAT system is to advance beyond the state of the art in tracking rescue workers by creating a high availability and high integrity team positioning and tracking system. On the system level approach, this goal is achieved by fusing the GNSS, EDAS/EGNOS, pedestrian dead reckoning and ultra-wide band ranging information, possibly augmented with map data. The system should be able to work both inside buildings and rural areas, which are the test cases defined by the final users involved in the consortium and the advisory board panel of the project

Open access

Sergey Averin, Andrey Plenkin, Pavel Ignatev, Michael Vorobiev and Andrey Veitsel

Abstract

The paper describes the Advanced Multi-Engine Platform (AMP) – Topcon’s patent pending technique, which is capable to improve RTK performance, based on the idea of running several RTK engines in parallel. The performance of AMP is dependent on Topcon receiver board, where it has been implemented, and the best results are achieved with B210 board. The main specifics of B210 is that it has two RF front-ends and a single digital section. Such an architecture allows for calculating heading and tilt within a single receiver board, and providing better RTK performance due to synergy of attitude determination and RTK solutions from two antennas, calculated within a single digital section. The paper describes specifics of B210 board along with mathematical aspects of AMP and its logic. The test results demonstrate noticeable improvements in RTK performance for B210 receiver board with AMP, compared with the classical single-engine RTK approach.