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Bogna Zawieja, Sylwia Lewandowska, Tomasz Mikulski and Wiesław Pilarczyk

Summary

An analysis is made of results from early stages of testing of promising hybrids. The data consist of single-replicate trials performed by Norddeutsche Pflanzenzucht in 6 locations (5 in Poland and one in Germany). In total 165 hybrids were tested with 3 standard varieties. The subject of the analysis was the seed yield. Three measures of stability were used. The yield of tested hybrids is expressed as percentage of that of standard varieties. Wricke’s ecovalence expressed as a contribution to G x E interaction was used as a measure of stability. Additional characterization of the tested hybrids was performed by regressing hybrid yield on the mean yields of the experiment, as described by Finlay and Wilkinson and by Eberhart and Russel. The methods applied enabled selection of the most promising hybrids for further yield testing.

Open access

Moawia Alghalith

Summary

We develop a simple method that completely eliminates the specification error and spurious relationships in regression. Furthermore, we introduce a stronger test of causality. We apply our method to oil prices.

Open access

Stamatis Karakonstantis, Mina Koulouridi, Kyriakos Pitsillos, Eirini Kalokyri, Anna Kozyri, Galateia Gourniezaki and Charalampos Lydakis

Abstract

Introduction: Several diagnoses have been associated with leukemoid reaction (LR). In patients with LR the diagnostic and prognostic value of detailed manual blood smear counts (such as the percentage of band cells or grading of neutrophil toxic changes) has not been studied previously.

Methods: We prospectively recorded all hospitalized adult (>18 years old) patients with LR (≥30000/ul) of neutrophilic predominance, excluding patients with pre-existing leukocytosis due to hematological malignancies. We examined the diagnoses and prognosis (in-hospital mortality and post-discharge mortality up to a year after the end of the study) of these patients as well as the value of manual peripheral smear review.

Results: We recorded a total of 93 patients with LR from January 2017 to December 2017. Infection was the most common diagnosis (70%), followed by malignancy (7.5%) and bleeding (6.5%). In-hospital mortality (45%) and post-discharge mortality (35% of those discharged) were very high. Among blood smear findings, only neutrophil vacuolation was significantly more common in patients with infections (34%), although it was also observed in many patients without any infection (13%). Blood smear findings were not associated with prognosis

Conclusion: Detailed manual smear review is a labor-intensive procedure and has limited diagnostic and prognostic value in unselected hospitalized patients with neutrophilic LR.

Open access

Justyna Krukiewicz, Agnieszka Chrzan-Rodak, Aneta Kościołek, Małgorzata Brodziak and Kinga Augustowska-Kruszyńska

Abstract

Introduction. Professional aspirations appear to be the key factor, which motivates individual to take actions as well as to further self-development. According to medical professions, professional aspirations seem to be crucial because they motivate nurses and midwives to continuing education – what is believed to be the fundament of vocational professionalism.

Aim. The aim of the research was to show the professional aspirations of the graduates of bachelor degree in nursing and midwifery.

Material and methods. The research was conducted with the diagnostic survey based on the questionnaire composed by the authors, within a period from April to June 2017. The research consisted of 158 graduates of bachelor studies.

Results. The majority (89.2%) of the graduates of bachelor studies in nursing and midwifery is planning to improve their professional qualifications. Their main motives are: the desire for being a professional (69.6%), the desire for professional development (52.5%) and the desire for financial situation improvement (47.5%). The MSc studies are most frequently chosen as a way for professional qualifications improvement.

Conclusions. The graduates of the Faculty of Health Sciences express the desire for further professional development. The aspirations, which the examined graduates of bachelor studies in nursing and midwifery are led by, may have a positive impact on their carriers through the strengthening the appropriate moral attitudes, professional development and the sense of professional autonomy.

Open access

Iwona Mejza, Katarzyna Ambroży-Deręgowska, Jan Bocianowski, Józef Błażewicz, Marek Liszewski, Kamila Nowosad and Dariusz Zalewski

Summary

The main purpose of this study was the model fitting of data deriving from a three-year experiment with barley malt. Two linear models were considered: a fixed linear model with fixed effects of years and other factors, and a mixed linear model with random effects of years and fixed effects of other factors. Two cultivars of brewing barley, Sebastian and Mauritia, six methods of nitrogen fertilization and four germination times were analyzed. Three quantitative traits were observed: practical extractivity of the malt, malting productivity, and a quality coefficient Q. The starting point for the statistical analyses was the available experimental material, which consisted of barley grain samples destined for malting. The analyses were performed over a series of years with respect to fixed or random effects of years. Due to the strong differentiation of the years of the study and some significant interactions of factors with years, annual analyses were also carried out.

Open access

Oksana Zabko, Katrine Fangen and Sylvi Endresen

Abstract

This article analyses migration decisions and labour market manoeuvring of Latvian migrants to Norway, as well as the economic and social conditions that influence their choices. How do they adapt to the labour market in Norway? Do they practise circular migration, or do they aim for more permanent settlement? For some circular migrants, ‘reinforced’ motivation for migration emerges gradually, partly related to differences in working conditions – lower workload, better enforcement of work-safety regulations and opportunities for specialising in their field. Family and networks can influence both return and permanent settlement, depending on whether these are based in the home country or in Norway.

Open access

Kiyotaka Iki, Hiroshi Nakano and Sadao Tomizawa

Summary

For square contingency tables with ordered categories, Iki, Tahata and Tomizawa (2012) considered a measure to represent the degree of departure from marginal homogeneity. However, the maximum value of this measure cannot distinguish two kinds of marginal inhomogeneity. The present paper proposes a measure which can distinguish two kinds of marginal inhomogeneity. In particular, the proposed measure is useful for representing the degree of departure from marginal homogeneity when the marginal cumulative logistic model holds.

Open access

Completely New Challenges’?:

Continuity and revision in Finnish political parties’ objectives on immigration, 1986–1991

Matti Välimäki

Abstract

This study analyses the discussion of four Finnish parties – Centre Party, National Coalition Party, Social Democratic Party of Finland (SDP) and Finnish People’s Democratic League/Left Alliance (SKDL/VAS; Suomen kansan demokraattinen liitto/Vasemmistoliitto) – on foreign workers, refugees and asylum seekers in 1986–1991. The turn of the 1990s marked a period of substantial change in Finnish immigration policy and legislation and included the first comprehensive immigration policy papers by the parties. The study sheds light on the contemporary history of Finnish party politics and discourses on immigration and the challenges faced by mainstream right-wing and left-wing parties when dealing with immigration. The analysis of a wide range of policy papers and documents produced for parties’ internal use indicates that the changes in foreign policy, developments in national demographic and economic circumstances as well as the parties’ broad base of supporters and distinctive ideological traditions facilitate explanation of party stances. The parties’ objectives of the period represented both continuity and revision in relation to previous decades’ considerably restrictive politics.

Open access

Mile Bosilkovski, Marija Dimzova, Marija Cvetkova, Kostadin Poposki, Katerina Spasovska and Ivan Vidinic

Abstract

Introduction: The study aimed to compare the etiologic spectrum of diseases causing fever of unknown origin (FUO) and methods for definitive diagnosis in a tertiary care hospital in Republic of North Macedonia during two different time periods.

Patients and methods: retrospectively were analysed the causes for FUO and final diagnostic approaches in 185 patients with classic FUO that were treated at the University Hospital for Infectious diseases in Skopje during two time periods. Seventy nine patients were treated during 1991 to 1995 and 106 patients during 2011 to 2015.

Results: When comparing these two periods, infections were present in 46.8% and 29.2% (p=0.014), non-infective inflammatory disorders in 22.8% and 25.5% (p=0.674), neoplasms in 10.1% and 13.2% (p=0.522), miscellaneous in 8.9% and 12.3% (p=0.461) and undiagnosed cases in 11.4% and 19.8% (p=0.124), respectively. The most common causes for FUO during the first period were abscesses (8.9%), tuberculosis and systemic lupus erythematosus (7.6% each), whereas in the second period the commonest causes were adult onset Still disease and solid organ neoplasm (7.6% each), polymyalgia rheumatica, abscesses and visceral leishmaniasis (5.7% each). The newer imaging techniques and clinical course evaluation had superior diagnostic significance during the second period.

Conclusion: A changing pattern of diseases causing FUO during the examined periods was evident. Infections continue to be the most common cause but with decreasing incidence when compared to 20 year ago. Even nowadays clinical evaluation and follow-up still remain the vital diagnostic tools in determining the etiology of FUO.

Open access

Barriers To Access?

Immigrant Origin and Occupational Regulation

Andreea Ioana Alecu and Ida Drange

Abstract

European labour markets have become increasingly accessible to foreign workers because of increased global migration and the implementation of international labour mobility agreements. Yet, skilled immigrants have lower occupational attainment. The regulated occupations, however, are more inclusive of immigrants than unregulated occupations. This article investigates immigrants’ likelihood of gaining access to licensed occupations in Norway, as well as how this varies between regions of origin and between immigrants with a foreign or domestic degree to determine whether employment outcomes are due to different impacts of regulatory frameworks. The empirical investigation uses administrative register data that cover the years 2003–2012. The results show that there are no significant differences between the immigrant groups with a domestic degree, while the results for immigrants with foreign degrees signal that without international agreements on mutual recognition of education credentials, those who are educated for a licensed profession are somewhat restricted in performing it.