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Jakub Siembida and Kaja Karakuła
Introduction: Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is commonly known as a recreation drug or the so-called “date rape drug”. It is also used in medicine to treat narcolepsy and alcohol addiction. GHB has an affinity for two types of receptors: GABAB and the relatively recently discovered GHB receptors. GHB receptors were first cloned in 2003 in mice and then in 2007 in humans. So far, evidence has been presented for their impact on dopaminergic transmission, which may imply that they play a role in the pathogenesis of diseases such as schizophrenia. At the same time, it has been demonstrated that benzamide antipsychotic drugs have an affinity for GHB receptors, which is why it is postulated that some of the effects of these drugs may result precisely from this affinity.
Aim: The study presents the current state of knowledge about GHB receptors and their potential role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and discusses drugs which show an affinity for this receptor.
Material and method: The literature review was based on a search of articles indexed between 1965 and 2018 in Medline, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and Research Gate databases. The following search terms were used: GHB receptor, GHB, sulpiride, and amisulpride.
Result and discussion: 1. It is possible that GHB receptors are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, although more research is needed in this area.
2. Part of the effects of some benzamide antipsychotic drugs (such as amisulpride) may be due to their affinity for GHB receptors.
Rogério M. D. O. Alves, Ana M. Waldschmidt, Joana F. Paixão, Daiane R. Santos and Carlos A. L. Carvalho
The bees of the genus Cephalotrigona (locally known as “mombucas”) play a key role in natural environments but their bioecological features, required to design proper management and conservation strategies, are scarce in most species. Thus, the goal of the present study was to map the occurrence sites of C. capitata in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, and to provide useful information about nest architecture to their technical management. This species was recorded in fifteen municipalities in Bahia, totaling forty-one nests. The range of C. capitata varied from locations at sea level to seasonal ombrophilous forests at an altitude of 600m high. The nests were built in trees with a mean diameter of 19.8 ±3.0 cm. The nest architecture was similar to that reported in other stingless bee species, with a variation in analyzed parameters. The thermoregulation was more efficient in highly populated boxes. The present results can be used for the conservation and management of this species, which represents a potential source of income for local farmers.
Divya Sharma, Sapna Katna, Reena Sharma, Bachittar S. Rana, Harish K. Sharma, Vinay Bhardwaj and Avinash Chauhan
Apis mellifera colonies were sampled for over twelve months to study the Nosema infection in different apiaries of Himachal Pradesh, India. We found that the infection incidence was highest in the winter season (48.40 %) followed by autumn and rainy months. The infection was diagnosed conventionally through the microscopic analysis detection of Nosema species spores. However, with the recent findings that both N. ceranae and N. apis affect western honey bees, more sensitive and species specific molecular techniques are required that reliably differentiate between species of microsporidia. Therefore, molecular studies were conducted to precisely differentiate between Nosema species infecting honeybee colonies in India. Species specific multiplex PCR amplification using previously reported primers derived from 16S rRNA fragments were performed in a single reaction mixture. A single diagnostic band size of only 143 bp for N. ceranae was observed in the agarose gel. Furthermore, a diagnostic band size of 252 bp was observed with primer NoS, thus reconfirming the presence of N. ceranae. This study appears to be the first to report the detect of N. ceranae species from India in samples of A. mellifera.
Mehmet M. Özcan, Fahad Aljuhaimi, Elfadıl E. Babiker, Nurhan Uslu, Durmuş Ali Ceylan, Kashif Ghafoor, Mustafa Mete Özcan, Nesim Dursun, Isam Mohamed Ahmed, Fadimu Gbemisola Jamiu and Omer N. Alsawmahi
The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of locations on bioactive propertiest, phenolic compounds and mineral contents of bee pollens. The oil content of pollen grains changed between 3.50% (Alanya) and 6.85% (Russia-Perm Region). The highest total phenolic content (720 mg/100g) and antioxidant activity values (81.4%) were observed in pollens obtained from the Russia-Perm Region and Alanya districts, respectively. Additionally, the highest carotenoid was found in a pollen sample collected from Karaman (Sarıveliler) (98.6 mg/g). The major phenolic compounds were (+)-catechin (66.75-337.39 mg/100g) and quercetin (61.2-1221.7 mg/100g) in all pollen samples. The pollen samples were observed to be a significant source of potassium (3846-6287 mg/kg), phosphorus (2947-5010 mg/kg), calcium (1022-2424 mg/kg) and sulfur (1744-2397 mg/kg). All of the analysis results were significantly affected by supplying locations. The antioxidant activity values of pollens were found partly similar and varied depending on locations. The content of saturated fatty acid (palmitic) was high (20-30%) in the tested pollen samples but did not exceed the content of linoleic acid.
Karolina Mielko, Ewelina Soroka, Karolina Sprawka and Marcin Olajossy
Introduction. The authors present an overview of current views on the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder refractory to pharmacological and psychological treatment.
Aim: To review the mechanisms of stimulation of deep brain structures and to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Method: Review and analysis of the Polish and foreign scientific articles from the years 1999-2016.
Conclusions: According to the literature considered, in half of the examined patients there was an improvement of over 35% on the Y-BOCS scale, in some patients even a reduction of symptoms reaching 81-83% was described. Previous studies have been carried out on small groups of patients. Since 2009, the method of invasive treatment with deep brain stimulation of the obsessive-compulsive syndrome is registered in the EU. In spite of the above, additional studies are necessary on a larger group of patients in order to precisely estimate the effectiveness of the procedure and elaborate the criteria for qualifying patients for inclusion in the procedure.
Marina Ruxandra Otelea
Gordana Stanic, Valentina Opancina, Nemanja Rancic, Jelena Jovic and Dragana Ignjatovic-Ristic
Dementia is characterized by a progressive decrease in cognitive functions, and the term includes different etiologies. Cognitive decline includes loss of memory and deterioration in executive functions, such as planning and organizing skills, sufficient to influence social activities. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the attitudes (knowledge, emotions and behaviour) of students at the High Medical College of Professional Studies and nurses towards people suffering from dementia. The study was designed as a qualitative study with the use of a questionnaire. The Dementia Attitudes Scale (DAS) was used in our study. A total of 283 respondents answered the survey: 56.25% were students, and 43.75% were nurses. The internal consistency of the DAS was found to be good with a Cronbach’s α of 0.792. In the overall score for attitudes, a significant difference was found between students (100.47±10.91) and nurses (95.51±16.10). The students had a better score regarding questions describing their behaviour towards these individuals (p<0.001) and emotions for these patients (p<0.001). For knowledge, there was no difference between the two groups of subjects (p=0.901). Regarding the overall score, attitudes of students and nurses towards people with dementia were positive. This research suggested that the training of senior team members who then had dementia expertise was a key component in developing attitudes and improving care practices and outcomes for these patients. Continuous education of all medical staff who have contact with people who suffer from dementia is important.
Paweł Piszcz and Bronisław K. Głód
The antioxidative activities of honeys collected in Poland were screened. The total antioxidant potential (TAP) provides more information about the system than the determination of individual antioxidant. TAP is proportional to the sum of products of concentrations of all antioxidants in the sample and their antioxidant powers (rate constants). To measure, compare and correlate TAPs, we used techniques which we had recently elaborated (i) related to hydroxyl radicals, (ii) RP-HPLC measurements with amperometric detection and (iii) differential pulsed voltammetry (DPV). They were correlated with techniques already described in the literature (i) related to the DPPH radicals, (ii) the total content of phenolic compounds and (iii) color intensity. All assays revealed the following order of obtained TAP values: buckwheat > honeydew > linden > multi-flower> acacia honey. Correlations were found between results obtained using different techniques. There was also a significant correlation with the results obtained by authors using other measurement techniques. Differences in antioxidant properties among individual honeys are inversely proportional to the strength of the radicals in relation to which measurements were performed. This is due to the fact that strong radicals react not only with strong antioxidants but also with weak ones, which are much more common. The darker honeys were also observed to be characterized by higher TAP values.
Hans-Jonas Meyer, Maximilian Beimler, Gudrun Borte, Wolfram Pönisch and Alexey Surov
Myeloid sarcoma (MS), also known as granulocytic sarcoma or chloroma, is a solid tumor of extramedullary localization composed of malignant primitive myeloid cells. The purpose of the study was to identify clinical and imaging features in a large patient sample.
Patients and methods
Overall, 71 cases (34 females (47.9%) and 37 males (52.1%) with a median age of 56 (± 16 years) of histopathologically confirmed myeloid sarcoma were included into this study. The underlying hematological disease, occurrence, localizations and clinical symptoms as well as imaging features on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were investigated.
In 4 cases (5.63%) the manifestation of MS preceded the systemic hematological disease by a mean value of 3.8 ± 2.1 months. In 13 cases, first presentation of MS occurred simultaneously with the initial diagnosis of leukemia, and 51 patients presented MS after the initial diagnosis of the underlying malignancy with a mean latency of 39.8 ± 44.9 SD months. The visceral soft tissue was affected in 26 cases, followed by the cutis/subcutis was affected in 21 cases. Further localizations were bones (n = 13), central nervous system (n = 9), lymph nodes (n = 4) and visceral organs (n = 9).
MS is a rare complication of several hematological malignancies, predominantly of acute myeloid leukemia, which can affect any part of the body. In most cases it occurs after the diagnosis of the underlying malignancy, and affects frequently the cutis and subcutis.