For the third time in the history of humankind, it is trying to implement e-mobility. There is a reasonable hope that this attempt will succeed this time. E-mobility is generally regarded as a zero emission. This sentence can only be true in a very small scope, as only in relation to selected parameters and in a very limited its dimension. The situation can change radically. If it will be take into account, the emissions in the production of electricity is necessary for the movement of this type of vehicles Second problem is the energy use amount. We know today that the energy consumption of electric cars, especially in long-term operation is too big. This general knowledge is not confirmed by research results. Both relevant databases and methods of their analysis are missing. This is an unfavourable situation because it is not possible to verify the effects of various changes introduced e.g. in the construction or technology of cars. This publication can be included in those in which it is shown how to change this situation.
The analysis of the results of long-term car use can be used as a verification of various development works, especially in e-mobility, which is only just starting. In the future, it will be need to create the appropriate “big data” databases and a number of tools to analyse the data collected there.
Nowadays acoustic emission (AE) method is used in many fields of science, including in the diagnosis and monitoring of machining processes such as turning, grinding, milling, etc. Monitoring of turning process allows ensuring stable conditions of treatment. Stable conditions of turning process have a great impact on the quality of the surface. This is especially important during finishing treatment.
The research was carried out on a universal ZMM-SLIVEN CU500MRD lathe centre-using tool with removable insert SANDVIK Coromant WNMG 080408 – WMX Wiper. Lathing process was performed on the shaft of 74 mm in diameter made of S235 steel.
The research was carried out at constant cutting speed v = 230 m/min. Changed parameters were feed f = 0.1; 0.2; 0.4 mm/rev and cutting depth ap = 0.5; 0.75; 1 mm. In the research was used a set of acoustic emission Vallen System. The kit includes: 4 channel signal recorder AMSY 6, two measurement modules ASIP-2/S, preamplifier with a frequency range 20 kHz – 1 MHz and the strengthening of 34dB and AE signal measurement sensor type VS 150M, with a frequency range 100 – 450 kHz. During the study, the acoustic emission (AE) generated during the lathing process were recorded parameters e.g. amplitude, number of events – hits, the effective value of the signal (RMS).
The test results indicate, that the higher instability of the process was during turning with parameters: ap = 0.75 mm and f = 0.1 mm/rev. The study can be the basis for the use of acoustic emission method for monitoring lathing process to ensure stable conditions of that process and the same to obtain a high quality surface.
Electron beam welding, called electron welding consists in penetrating the elements being welded with heat obtained from the elements’ bombardment in vacuum with concentrated electron beam of high energy. Concentration of the electron beam of high kinetic energy in a very small space results in generating the heat of high concentration causing melting of material in high depth. During the metal melting the electron beam makes a narrow weld of little heat affected zone (HAZ). This paper presents the test results on selection of parameters of electron beam welding of 12 mm thickness sheets of AlMg3 aluminum alloy. The beam electron melting through was carried out in vacuum by means of the welding machine WS-15 KW/100 KV. Before melting, the sheets were degreased in tetrachloroethylene and oxides were removed with 15% solution Na2Co3. The influence of electron beam melting through of sheets on their mechanical properties was tested as well as resistance to stress corrosion cracking and resistance to corrosion in fast seawater flow (10 m/s). The slow strain rate stress corrosion tests in the air and artificial seawater were performed. It was found that electron beam melting through of the AlMg3 alloy does not decrease the mechanical properties in comparison to the native material. The crack during the static tension test had ductile character and proceeded in the native material. AlMg3 alloy melting with electron beam shows a very good stress corrosion resistance.
Payload transportation with UAV’s (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) has become a topic of interest in research with possibilities for a wide range of applications such as transporting emergency equipment to otherwise inaccessible areas. In general, the problem of transporting cable suspended loads lies in the under actuation, which causes oscillations during horizontal transport of the payload. Excessive oscillations increase both the time required to accurately position the payload and may be detrimental to the objects in the workspace or the payload itself. In this article, we present a method to control a quadrotor with a cable suspended payload. While the quadrotor itself is a nonlinear system, the problem of payload transportation with a quadrotor adds additional complexities due to both input coupling and additional under actuation of the system. For simplicity, we fix the quadrotor to a planar motion, giving it a total of 4 degrees of freedom. The quadrotor with the cable suspended payload is modelled using the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion and then partitioned into translation and attitude dynamics. The design methodology is based on simplifying the system by using a variable transformation to decouple the inputs, after which sliding mode control is used for the translational and pendulum dynamics while a feedback linearizing controller is used for the rotational dynamics of the quadrotor. The sliding mode parameters are chosen so stability is guaranteed within a certain region of attraction. Lastly, the results of the numerical simulations created in MATLAB/Simulink are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
Results of simulation of main rotor blade loads and deformations, which can be generated during boundary states of helicopter flight, are presented. Concerned cases of flight envelope include hover at maximum height, level flight at high velocity, pull-up manoeuvres applying cyclic pitch and mixed collective and cyclic control. The simulation calculations were executed for data of light helicopter with three-bladed articulated rotor. For analysis, the real blades are treated as elastic axes with distributed masses of blade segments. The model of deformable blade allows for out-of-plane bending, in plane bending, and torsion. For assumed flight state of helicopter, the equations of rotor blades motion are solved applying Runge-Kutta method. According to Galerkin method, for each concerned azimuthal position of blade the parameters of its motions are assumed as a combination of considered bending and torsion eigen modes of the blade. The loads of rotor blades generated during flight depend due to velocity of flight, helicopter mass, position of rotor axis in air and deflections of swashplate that correspond to collective and cyclic pitch angle applied to rotor blades. The results of simulations presenting rotor loads and blade deformations are shown in form of time-runs and as plots of rotor-disk distributions. The simulations of helicopter flight states may be useful for prediction the conditions of flight-tests without exceeding safety boundaries or may help to define limitations for manoeuvre and control of helicopter.
An experiment in cooling of gas turbine nozzle guide vanes was modelled numerically with a conjugate viscous-flow and solid-material heat conduction solver. The nozzle vanes were arranged in a cascade and operated in high-pressure, hot-temperature conditions, typical for first turbine stage in a flow of controlled-intensity, artificially-generated turbulence. The vane cooling was internal, accomplished by 10 channels in each vane with cooling-air flow. Numerical simulations of the experiment were conducted applying two turbulence models of the k-omega family: k-omega-SST and Transition SST implemented in the ANSYS Fluent solver. Boundary conditions for the simulations were set based on conditions of experiment: total pressures and total temperature on inlet to cascade, static pressure on the outlet of the cascade and heat flux on the surface of cooling channels. The values of heat flux on the surface of cooling channels were evaluated based on Nusselt numbers obtained from experiment and varied in time until steady-state conditions were obtained. Two test cases, one with subcritical outlet flow, and another one, with supercritical outlet flow were simulated. The result of experiment – distributions of pressure, surface temperature, and heat transfer coefficients on the vane external surface were compared to results of numerical simulations. Sensitivity of the vane surface temperatures and heat transfer coefficients to turbulence models and to boundary-condition values of parameters of turbulence models: turbulence energy and specific dissipation of turbulence energy was also studied.
One of the most important and commonly used means of transport in the armed forces of various countries is wheeled armoured personnel carriers. After proper preparation, beside transport tasks, they can carry out special tasks, as part of regular and irregular activities within purpose of supporting actions of troops. This paper presents preliminary results of numerical research of wheeled armoured personnel carrier with 8x8-drive system. The effect of impact of large calibre cannon (120 mm) with reduced recoil force on transporter behaviour was investigated. The research object model consists of shell, solid and discrete elements. The research was carried out in the LS-DYNA software. Considered variant applies to sideways firing (to the left of the vehicle) for cannon elevation angle 16 deg. Numerical model of standing still on the flat ground wheeled armoured personnel carrier was preloaded with the gravitational force. The results of post-firing vehicle behaviour including angular displacement of the hull, dynamic deflections of the suspensions and impact on the stability of the wheeled vehicle were evaluated.
Current trends in the high bypass ratio turbofan engines development are discussed in the beginning of the paper. Based on this, the state of the art in the contemporary turbofan engines is presented and their change in the last decade is briefly summarized. The main scope of the work is the bypass ratio growth analysis. It is discussed for classical turbofan engine scheme. The next step is presentation of reach this goal by application of an additional combustor located between high and low pressure turbines. The numerical model for fast analysis of bypass ratio grows for both engine kinds are presented. Based on it, the numerical simulation of bypass engine increasing is studied. The assumption to carry out this study is a common core engine. For classical turbofan engine bypass ratio grow is compensated by fan pressure ratio reduction. For inter turbine burner turbofan, bypass grown is compensated by additional energy input into the additional combustor. Presented results are plotted and discussed. The main conclusion is drawing that energy input in to the turbofan aero engine should grow when bypass ratio is growing otherwise the energy should be saved by other engine elements (here fan pressure ratio is decreasing). Presented solution of additional energy input in inter turbine burner allow to eliminate this problem. In studied aspect, this solution not allows to improve engine performance. Specific thrust of such engine grows with bypass ratio rise – this is positive, but specific fuel consumption rise too. Classical turbofan reaches lower specific thrust for higher bypass ratio but its specific fuel consumption is lower too. Specific fuel consumption decreasing is one of the goal set for future aero-engines improvements.
Cryptography is a field of science necessary to solve problems with encryption of classified messages. The security of electronic information is an integral part of the digital tachography system. From year to year, there is a noticeable increase in electronic data logging systems in many aspects of life. The control measures created for the purpose of performing roadside checks are not sufficient to detect all violations in the recording equipment. Many violations that have occurred during the use of the vehicle are stored in the device’s memory. The article describes the basic mathematical rules illuminating cryptography. The hazards to which the motion sensor installed in the vehicle may be exposed are described. Breaking safety in transport systems may lead to incorrect results of inspections carried out while the vehicle is stopped by authorized services. The article also provides information on the authorities responsible for issuing cards for digital tachographs. Nowadays, documents are increasingly issued with the use of a digital signature. The digital signature of its origin is based on the principles of cryptography. The security key seems to be complicated for the average user. The article discusses the topic of tachograph construction, in particular the schematic responsible for information encryption.
The ship hull vibration has a great impact on the performance, safety of the devices, structures, and the sailor's comfort when working on the ship. With increases in ship sizes and speeds, shipboard vibration becomes a significant concern in the design and construction of ships. Therefore, designing a ship without any excessive vibration is an important issue and should be studied through analysis right in the design phase. To ensure minimum vibration in a proposed new design; avoid damage to structures, machinery or equipment (mechanically suitable); meeting the requirements of the crew's living environment and working conditions. The ship's natural vibrations are determined to right from the design stage, which will help ship designers and structures avoid dangerous resonance areas. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model representing the entire ship hull, including the deckhouse and machinery propulsion system, has been developed using numerical modelling implemented in Patran-Nastran software for local and global vibration analyses of the container ship 2000 TEU. Vibration analyses have been conducted under two conditions: free–free (dry) and in-water (wet). The wet analysis has been implemented using Mfluid elements in Nastran software. Because of the global ship free vibration analysis, global natural frequencies and mode shapes have been determined. Combined with the frequency of the main engine and the propeller, the resonant regions with higher frequencies are determined by the resonant graph of the hull. The application of the finite element method for ship vibration analysis shows the optimal of numerical modelling method compared to other traditional methods. This will help other technical problems to be solved with the support of the finite element method.