It is important to shape the required properties of the surface layer in the technological process. This issue is an important problem due to the ability of the kinematic pair elements to the required reliable operation of machine parts. The latest generation devices work with increasing operational loads. This forces the search forever-newer construction materials or innovative manufacturing engineering technologies that would ensure high reliability and durability of machine components. For mechanical engineering, continue to be used on steel structures of machine parts. In the petrochemical and shipbuilding industry, stainless steels are very poplars. Those materials are used in the constructions of seawater and acid installations. Currently, a newer material with more favourable properties is two-phase stainless steel. This is the so-called duplex steel. It can be applied to pump shafts in acid or seawater solutions. Duplex cast steel is a difficult-to-cut material. It is important to determine the effect of cutting parameters on the surface quality of the shafts and wear of cutting edge. Traditional methods of finishing surface treatment of shafts are machining (turning, grinding, superfinishing). Considering the possibilities of equipping a marine power plant workshop, it would be best to use machining by turning.
The paper specifies the relationship between the wear of the cutting edge and the geometrical structure of the machined surface as well as the type of tool material used and the shape of the cutting inserts.
Presented paper concerns a new mathematical form of stochastic theory of hydrodynamic friction forces occurring on the real cooperating surfaces in computer micro bearing fan and computer microbearing in hard disc driver HDD. This paper presents particularly a new-review of stochastic analytical considerations realized by the authors for friction forces estimation during hydrodynamic lubrication performed on the ground of the measurements of the gap height between two roughness surfaces. After numerous experimental measurements directly follows that the random unsymmetrical increments and decrements of the gap height of computer microbearings have important influence on the load carrying capacities and finally on the friction forces and wear of cooperating surfaces. The main topic demonstrates the influence of the variations of expectancy values and standard deviation of the computer microbearing gap height on the friction forces occurring in the HDD and microbearing fan. Moreover, it is observed the evident connection between the apparent dynamic viscosity and the features of the microbearing superficial surface. Hence after abovementioned remarks follows the corollary that the influence of the microbearing gap height stochastic variations connected with the surface roughness tend moreover indirect from the apparent viscosity into the friction forces variations. The synthetic, complex elaboration of obtained results indicates finally the influence of the random roughness in micro and nano level of microbearing surfaces on the friction forces distribution. A new results contained in this paper are obtained taking into account 3D variations of dynamic viscosity of the non-Newtonian lubricant, particularly variations crosswise the film thickness and influences of surface superficial layer features on the lubricant apparent viscosity.
The article discusses one of the most popular methods of diagnosing selected damages of marine piston engines, which is the indication or measurement of pressure changes in the engine’s combustion chamber. Improving the quality of indicator diagrams may contribute to the increase in the efficiency of using the parameters indicated in the diagnostics of marine piston engines. Measurement errors during engine indication are primarily caused by measuring channels that connect the combustion chamber to the pressure sensor. One way to avoid these errors is to install the pressure sensor directly in the combustion chamber. It seems that it is possible to eliminate these errors. However, there is a risk that the pressure sensor will be damaged by the effect of high temperature on it during combustion of the fuel-air mixture in the engine’s combustion chamber. The article presents the results of tests that indicate that the measured temperatures in the place where the sensor was installed (in the combustion chamber) did not exceed the critical value specified by the pressure sensor manufacturer. The article also presents the results of cylinder pressure measurement not only in the combustion chamber but also in two other points - on the thread of the indicator cock and in the measuring channel between the indicator cock and the cylinder head. The tests were carried out in a wide range of engine load technically efficient and with simulated damage in the fuel injection system. The article presents a comparative analysis of the parameters read out of the indicator diagram for the three above-mentioned pressure measurement locations. It was shown that the pressure measurements carried out directly in the combustion chamber are free from errors resulting from the influence of measuring channels and indicator cock.
Tomasz Cyryl Dyl, Adam Charchalis, Grzegorz Stradomski and Dariusz Rydz
Products used in the construction of machines and shipbuilding as well as petrochemical industry, such as shafts, bars, pipes and the like from two-phase stainless steel are currently very popular. It is required that they meet certain quality criteria. They must be characterized by suitable properties of the surface layer to meet the requirements of potential buyers.
In the article impact of processing parameters on the degree of relative strain hardening and index of surface roughness reduction were presented. The burnishing process was carried out for two-phase stainless steel. Burnishing process of the shafts neck was performed using burnisher roller. The experimental research were obtained in the surface layer increase in hardness and the material ratio curve a convex shaped, which, taking into account the load capacity of the surface will be directly affected by its resistance to wear and corrosion. The experimental research by application of the burnishing process was made in the Laboratory of Production Engineering. After the studies it was found that the hardness of the surface layer and the roughness of the shaft necks an important influenced by technological parameters of processing (burnishing speed, feed rate and depth of burnishing). The objective of applying burnishing process may be, for example, the need to increase surface smoothness and dimensional accuracy of part.
Hulls of ships are often made of steel, which are produced under the supervision of classification societies. Usually, the hull steel of ordinary strength category A is used for the ship's shell (the yield strength is 235 MPa and the impact strength 27 J at 20ºC). Vessels sail in sea areas with various levels of salinity and thus with different corrosiveness. The average salinity of the seas is taken as 3.5% content of sodium chloride. This article presents the results of corrosion tests of S235 JRG1 steel in an aqueous solution in which the mass fraction of sodium chloride was: 0.7%, 1.4%, 2.2%, 2.8%, 3.5% and 4.2%. Corrosion tests were performed using the potentiodynamic method. As parameters characterizing the corrosion properties of the tested steel, the corrosion current density and corrosion potential were assumed. Statistically significant influence of seawater salinity on the corrosion properties of hull structural steel of ordinary strength of category A was found. The highest value of the corrosion current density was observed in the solution containing 3.5% NaCl mass fraction was observed. In seawater with a sodium chloride content in the range of 0.7 to 3.5%, an increase in the value of the corrosion current density was observed, along with the increasing share of NaCl. In seawater with higher salinity, the corrosion rate was reduced. The corrosion potential of S235JRG1 steel decreases with the NaCl content in the corrosive solution. The susceptibility of this material to corrosion in seawater increased.
The main goal of the presented work is to determine the impact of the cyclic hardening model on the numerical results of the ε-N fatigue test. As an object of study, compressor blade (from PZL-10W helicopter engine) was used. The examined blade was made of EI-961 alloy. In numerical analysis, a geometrical model of the blade with a preliminary defect was created. Geometrical defect – V-notch was created on the leading edge. This defect was introduced in order to weaken the structure of the element and the possibility of observing the crack initiation process (in experimental tests). Material data to ε-N analysis, based on Manson-Coffin-Basquin equation, were estimated for Mitchell’s model. This model was built based on strength data provided by the steel producer. Based on three different models of cyclic hardening (Manson, Fatemi, and Xianxin), a number of load cycles were calculated. Load cycle during numerical analysis was represented as resonance bending with an amplitude of displacement equal to A = 1.8 mm. Obtained results were compared with experimental data. Additionally, the analytical model of ε-N fatigue (depending on the cyclic hardening) was prepared. All the work carried out has been summarized by a comprehensive comparative analysis of the results. Obtained results and dependencies can be used in the selection of an appropriate model of cyclic hardening in further fatigue tests of many aerospace elements.
Zbigniew Żmudka, Stefan Postrzednik and Grzegorz Przybyła
The effectiveness of work of an internal combustion engine can be assessed by means of the energy efficiency: theoretical, internal and effective... In the problem regarding the efficiency of obtaining a work from the tested SI engine, the theoretical Seiliger-Sabathe cycle was adopted as a reference model for the real engine cycle. For comparison, the OTTO cycle was also analysed. The engine indicating allows direct determination only of internal work. However, determining the work of the theoretical cycle first requires solving the problem of selecting the parameters of the theoretical cycle, according to the real cycle of the engine (inverse problem). In order uniquely to determine the course of the theoretical Seiliger-Sabathe cycle, it is necessary to determine the parameters of the starting point and the heat distribution number. The selection of the theoretical cycle for the real cycle, within the scope of determining the number of heat distribution, is to some extent of a contractual nature. Therefore, the problem of determining the number of heat distribution was solved by two own original methods. A comparison of the real cycle with the theoretical cycle determined for it is presented.
It was presented short analysis of connection ISM Code on vessels on the number of incidents threats. Introduced into force ISM Code in 1998 and 2002 (contained in chapter 9 of SOLAS Convention) as obligatory on vessels have had the aim of decreasing the number of injuries, serious injuries, fatalities, other incidents threats and total loses during vessel operation in maritime shipping. The next aim vicariously was improving the maritime safety and prevention of marine pollution from ships. As a result of ship-owner and crew requirements, it should eliminate from shipping market the bad and poor management systems of charterers or ship operators and improper qualified crewmembers. The company and the ship shall comply with the requirements of ISM Code and the company shall have the Document of Compliance (referred to in regulation 4 of ISM Code).
After about twenty years when ISM Code was in force some comparisons, conclusions and remarks were presented. It is observed the decreasing number of vessel total losses but other comparisons is not so clear due to different definitions of incident being obligatory in states of flag and different databases in the different Memoranda of Understanding. The influence of introducing ISM Code on maritime shipping is serious in good or bad matters (e.g. the increasing of bureaucracy).
Agnieszka Kosoń-Schab, Jarosław Smoczek and Janusz Szpytko
The safety and efficiency of material handling systems involve periodical inspections and evaluation of transportation device technical conditions. That is particularly important in case of industrial cranes, since they are subjected to a large impact load and mechanical stresses acting on the crane's structure and equipment. The paper considers the possibility of a crane structure inspection using the metal magnetic memory (MMM) method. As an advanced non-destructive technique, this method can be employed for inspection of crane structure during operation, which leads to reduce the down time costs and increase the safety confidence in the monitoring process. The MMM technique is effective for early identification of the possible defect location and detecting the micro-damage in ferromagnetic structures through detecting the stress concentration areas. The basic principle of MMM method is the self-magnetic flux leakage signal that correlates with the degree of stress concentration. This method allows detecting early damage of ferromagnetic material through performing measurement in the earth magnetic field, without the use of a special magnetizing device. The paper presents the experimental results carried out on the double-girder overhead travelling crane with hoisting capacity 1000 kg. The influence of the load variation and duration time on the intensity of the self-magnetic flux leakage signal is analysed and discussed.
The aim of the article is to look at the possibility of accurately determining the energy efficiency of drive systems thanks to the use of high quality sensors and measuring instruments. The types of measuring instruments used on the test stand are presented. The results of experimentally determined efficiencies and simulationally determined efficiencies of two hydrostatic systems with throttling control were compared, which are fed with a constant capacity pump. The choice of the analysed systems is not accidental. There is still a view in the literature about limited possibilities of energy systems with proportional control. The research stand was very carefully designed and made. The applied measuring instruments were characterized by high accuracy of measurements. The issues related to the determination of energy losses and energy efficiency of the engine or drive system, which should be determined as dependent on the physical quantities independent of these losses, were also discussed. For laboratory verification, measurement methods were developed, the test stand was adapted and automated. It consists of tested system and loaded system. The measurements during the tests were saved on the computer disk. In order to be able to compare the efficiency of the overall system with the efficiency obtained on the basis of the simulation, coefficients ki determining the energy losses of individual elements of the system were calculated. The research showed a large convergence of the mathematical description of energy losses in the elements of the system and the efficiency of the system with reality. The mathematical model enables accurate simulation determination of the energy efficiency of the system at each point of its field of operation, i.e. at each speed and load of the controlled hydraulic motor. The range of motor speed and load variation can also be accurately determined simulationally.