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Open access

Ilze Grāvīte, Edīte Kaufmane, Laila Ikase and Edgars Cirša

Abstract

All growers prefer to obtain a first harvest as soon as possible. The aim of this study was to identify an effective tree training system for new Latvian plum cultivars, which provides the highest yield and fruit quality. The trial was established in 2012 at the Institute of Horticulture (formerly Latvia State Institute of Fruit-Growing) and included cultivars ‘Ance’, ‘Adelyn’, and ‘Sonora’; and the controls ‘Victoria’ and ‘Jubileum’. Planting distances were 4 × 2.5 m, and the rootstock was Prunus cerasifera. Tree training was done using four systems: two systems with branch bending (Heka espalier and spindle); and two systems without bending (standard (round) and flat crown). Evaluation of average fruit weight and yield per trunk cross section area (TCSA) was done from 2015 to 2017. The Heka espalier and spindle systems had first yield in 2015, but systems without bending had first yield only in 2016. Average yield per TCSA was significantly higher for the Heka espalier system (0.49 kg·cm−2) than for the spindle system (0.24 kg·cm−2), standard crown system (0.17 kg·cm−2), and flat crown system (0.30 kg·cm−2). Cultivar ‘Victoria’ had the highest yield among all systems. Average fruit size showed the same results: the biggest fruits were obtained with the Heka espalier system, and the smallest for systems without bending in the standard crown.

Open access

Dominika Szafraniec and Wojciech Czarny

Abstract

The purpose of this work was twofold: to determine prevalence of hypertension and high normal blood pressure in university students, and to assess impact of body weight status, field of study and selected lifestyle factors on the arterial blood pressure (BP) values. The research was conducted in a group of 731 male and female full-time academic students who volunteered as participants in the study. The thickness of skinfolds was measured in three standard places. The percentage of fat was determined using the body composition analyzer. Body height and mass, waist circumference, hips and the largest right thigh circumference were measured and anthropometric indices calculated. The blood pressure values were measured according to the Korotkov method. Data were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods, oneway analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression analysis. The chi-square test of independence and linear regression analysis were used to assess impact of selected factors on BP values. High normal BP was found in 19% of women and 23% of men, and hypertension in 10% of women and 32% of men. Factors having a very high effect on BP values in both women and men were the somatic structure and fat content in the body. A positive correlation was found between subscapularis muscle fatty infiltration and BP values in both women and men. Majority of lifestyle factors were not associated with BP values but smoking and alcohol consumption. The field of study and level of physical activity were directly associated with high normal BP and hypertension. In conclusion it should be stated that high blood pressure is a growing problem in young adult people with men being more likely to be exposed to this condition than women.

Open access

Magdalena Kosińska, Tomasz Hadada and Grażyna Liczbińska

Abstract

It was examined whether positive changes in maternal SES and medical facilities in Poland 20 years after social and economic transformation weakened the role of maternal age in shaping perinatal outcome. Data comprised of 2,979 children born in 2000 and 2,992 – born in 2015. To test the differences between the frequency of indicators of adverse perinatal outcome the chi-square test was applied. The influence of maternal age on the perinatal outcome was estimated using Generalized Linear Models (GLMs), with binomial error distribution and the logit link function. The infants survival was examined using survival analysis. Gestational age and birth weight were influenced by mother’s age and the year of survey. Infants of adolescent and older mothers represented the groups with a risk of adverse perinatal outcome: an increase of preterm births and higher risk of having children with LBW in the group of adolescent mothers than in mothers aged >35, infants born SGA and LGA found in both adolescent and adult mothers. GLMs confirmed the impact of maternal age and the year of survey on perinatal outcome. The Cox proportional hazard models showed that the year of survey was the only factor affecting the risk of infants’ death. The impact of maternal age on adverse perinatal outcome can be counterbalanced by positive changes in social and economic standard of living of women, improvement in neonatal medical care and better equipment of hospital wards in 2015 as compared to 2000.

Open access

Nitamoni Bharali, Kh. Narendra Singh and Nitish Mondal

Abstract

Undernutrition is considered to be a serious public health problem in most of the developing countries. Globally, the anthropometric measures are widely used to estimate the magnitude of undernutrition in children. The Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) provides the overall magnitude of undernutrition as an aggregate single measure over the conventional anthropometric indices and helps in identification of single or double or multiple anthropometric failures in preschool children. The present investigation assesses the age-sex specific prevalence of undernutrition using both conventional anthropometric measures and CIAF among Sonowal Kachari tribal preschool children of Assam, India. This cross-sectional investigation was carried out among 362 (162 boys and 190 girls) Sonowal Kachari tribal children younger than 5 years of flood affected regions of Lakhimpur district of Assam, India. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were measured using standard procedures. Age-sex specific Z-score value of weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height were calculated by using WHO-Anthro, v. 3.2.2. A child Z-score <−2.00 of any anthropometric indices was considered to be undernourished and the standard CIAF classification was used to calculate the prevalence of undernutrition. The overall prevalence of wasting, underweight, stunting and CIAF was observed to be 11.6%, 22.9%, 36.2%, and 48.6%, respectively. The sex-specific prevalence of wasting (15.8% vs. 6.9%), underweight (30.5% vs. 14.5%) and stunting (42.1% vs. 29.6%) observed to be significantly higher among girls than boys (p<0.05). The girls (61.05%) were found to be more affected than boys (34.9%) by CIAF (p<0.01). The present investigation reported higher magnitude of undernutrition using CIAF over conventional anthropometric measures, hence the CIAF is relatively better indicator that reflects higher magnitude of undernourishment as compared to any conventional anthropometric indices in children. This research investigation has also reinforced the importance of appropriate intervention programme and strategies needed to reduce the prevalence of undernutrition in childhood and in population as a whole.

Open access

Simone A. Ludwig

Abstract

An intrusion detection system (IDS) is an important feature to employ in order to protect a system against network attacks. An IDS monitors the activity within a network of connected computers as to analyze the activity of intrusive patterns. In the event of an ‘attack’, the system has to respond appropriately. Different machine learning techniques have been applied in the past. These techniques fall either into the clustering or the classification category. In this paper, the classification method is used whereby a neural network ensemble method is employed to classify the different types of attacks. The neural network ensemble method consists of an autoencoder, a deep belief neural network, a deep neural network, and an extreme learning machine. The data used for the investigation is the NSL-KDD data set. In particular, the detection rate and false alarm rate among other measures (confusion matrix, classification accuracy, and AUC) of the implemented neural network ensemble are evaluated.

Open access

A. Gadalla, M. S. Abd El-Sadek and R. Hamood

Abstract

This paper attempts to describe an effective method for producing a composite of quantum dots consisting of CdSe (core) with CdS (shell). This nanoparticles composite was synthesized from modified organometallic precursors. The sizes of the nanoparticles were estimated from X-ray diffraction data using Debye-Scherer formula and compared with high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) and optical spectra. The shape of CdSe/CdS NPs is nearly spherical and revels that the CdS shell with the thickness ~0.6 nm almost fully covers the CdSe core (higher contrast). Using UV-Vis spectroscopy, a systematic red shift in the absorption and emission spectra was observed after the deposition of CdS which confirms the shell growth over the CdSe core. In the CdSe/CdS core/shell structure, the holes are confined to the core, while the electrons are delocalized as a result of similar electron affinities of the core and the shell. The increased time of synthesis resulted in shell thickness increase. The observed properties of prepared CdSe/CdS QDs demonstrate the capability of the nanocomposite for using in the optoelectronics and photonics devices.

Open access

Mohamed Akkouchi and Mohamed Amine Ighachane

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to give some refinements to several inequalities, recently etablished, by P.K. Bhandari and S.K. Bissu in [Inequalities via Hölder's inequality, Scholars Journal of Research in Mathematics and Computer Science, 2 (2018), no. 2, 124–129] for the incomplete gamma function, Polygamma functions, Exponential integral function, Abramowitz function, Hurwitz-Lerch zeta function and for the normalizing constant of the generalized inverse Gaussian distribution and the Remainder of the Binet's first formula for ln Γ(x).