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Open access

Lība Sokolovska, Alina Sultanova, Maksims Čistjakovs, Egils Cunskis and Modra Murovska

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using monocytes/macrophages as mediators in human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection of thyroid gland tissues in autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). Seventy-three AIT patients were enrolled in this study. The control group consisted of 80 blood donors. Monocyte/macrophage isolation for AIT patient samples was performed by adherence. HHV-6 was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) DNA samples using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). Gene expression of HHV-6 active infection marker (U79/80) and chemokine receptors (U12, U51) in patient monocyte/macrophage samples and blood donor PBMC samples was detected using reverse-transcription PCR. HHV-6 viral load was detected by using quantitative-PCR technique. The HHV-6 genomic sequence was found significantly more frequently among AIT patient than control group samples. Markers of active infection were found in 8 AIT patient monocyte/macrophage samples (11%) and in none of control group PBMC samples. HHV-6 U51 mRNA expression was detected only in AIT patient samples (2/24 previously positive for HHV-6). Since HHV-6 genomic sequences were found significantly more frequently in AIT patient samples and active infection markers were found in patient monocytes/macrophages, our results suggest that monocytes/macrophages may be used by HHV-6 as mediators for thyroid gland infection.

Open access

Allan Bickle and Allen Schwenk

Abstract

Plesnik proved that the edge connectivity and minimum degree are equal for diameter 2 graphs. We provide a streamlined proof of this fact and characterize the diameter 2 graphs with a nontrivial minimum edge cut.

Open access

Ieva Kalere, Ilze Konrāde, Anna Proskurina, Sabīne Upmale, Tatjana Zaķe, Normunds Limba, Gita Krieviņa, Aivars Lejnieks and Pēteris Tretjakovs

Abstract

There is a close relationship between melatonin as a circadian regulator and insulin, glucagon and somatostatin production. This study aimed to describe subgroups of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients that may benefit from melatonin clock-targeting properties. The study involved 38 participants: 26 T2DM patients, and 12 participants without diabetes in the control group. Subjects were asked to complete the questionnaire of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Standard biochemical venous sample testing was performed, and a sample of saliva was collected for melatonin testing. Melatonin concentration in participants without obesity (body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m2) was significantly higher than in obese participants: 13.2 (6.4; 23.50) pg/ml vs 5.9 (0.78; 13.1) pg/ml, p = 0.035. Subjects with BMI 30 kg/m2 had a significantly higher PSQI score than non-obese subjects: 7 (4.5; 10) vs 5.5 (3; 7), p = 0.043. T2DM patients showed significantly lower levels of melatonin than the control group: 6.1 (0.78; 12.2) pg/ml vs 17.8 (8.2; 25.5) pg/ml, p = 0.003. T2DM patients using short-acting insulin analogues showed a significantly higher PSQI score than patients not using insulin: 9 (6; 10) vs 6 (3; 8), respectively (p = 0.025). Poor sleep quality was more prevalent in patients with diabetic retinopathy than in those without this complication (p = 0.031). Lower melatonin levels were detected in T2DM and obese patients. Furthermore, poor sleep quality was observed in T2DM patients using short-acting insulin analogues and those with diabetic retinopathy, and obese individuals.

Open access

Dzintars Ozols, Jānis Zariņš and Aigars Pētersons

Abstract

Congenital thumb hypoplasia is a rare deformity of the upper extremity. Incidence of thumb hypoplasia type I–V was 2–3 and type IIIb-V was 0.5–1 per 20 000 newborns per year in Latvia. The classification of thumb hypoplasia was created by Blauth in 1967 (type I to V). The base of the metacarpal bone is absent for hypoplasia type IIIb–V; therefore, toe-to hand transplantation is not recommended. A stable first carpometacarpal joint has been considered a mandatory factor for successful toe-to-hand transplantation. A technique for toe-to-hand transplantation for thumb hypoplasia type IIIb–V patients has been described in literature but overall results were not better than pollicisation. The aim of this study is to describe a new technique for thumb reconstruction with a second toe transfer with metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis, which can provide a 5-digit hand and restore the functionality of the thumb for thumb hypoplasia IIIb–V. Long-term follow up was done to evaluate the functions and aesthetics of the hands. A survey to evaluate aesthetical outcome for the transplantation method and pollicisation method was completed by 290 respondents. The overall population rated the aesthetic outcomes of the new transplantation method significantly higher than for pollicisation (p < 0.0001).

Open access

Vineta Viktorija Vinogradova, Jeļena Vrubļevska and Elmārs Rancāns

Abstract

Depression is among the most common mental disorders in primary care. Despite high prevalence rates it remains to be under-diagnosed in primary care settings over the world. This study was aimed to identify Latvian family physicians’ (FPs) experience and attitude in diagnosing and managing depression. It was carried out within the framework of the National Research Programme BIOMEDICINE 2014–2017. After educational seminars on diagnosing and managing depression, FPs were asked to complete a structured questionnaire. In total 216 respondents were recruited. Most of the doctors, or 72.2% (n = 156), agreed with the statement that patients with depression use primary care facilities more often than other patients. More than a half of physicians, or 66.3% (n = 143) quite often asked their patients about their psycho-emotional status and 65.7% (n = 142) of clinicians thought that they can successfully assess a patient’s psychoemotional status and possible mental disorders. The majority, or 91.6 % (n = 198), supposed that routine screening for depression is necessary in Latvia. Despite the fact that a significant number, or 62.6% (n = 135) of FPs thought that their practice was well suitable for the treatment of depressive patients, half of the respondents, or 50.9% (n = 110), assessed their ability to build a trustful contact and to motivate patients for treatment as moderate. Although FPs acknowledged the importance and necessity to treat depression, current knowledge and management approaches were far from optimal. This justifies the need to provide specific training programmes for FPs.

Open access

Ingus Skadiņš, Juta Kroiča, Ilze Salma, Aigars Reinis, Marina Sokolova and Dagnija Rostoka

Abstract

Local antibiotic therapy has several advantages over systemic antibiotic treatment. Using antibiotics in local biomaterial systems can reduce the number of microorganisms that can adhere to implanted biomaterials. In this in vitro study, antibacterial properties of hydroxyapatite biomaterials impregnated with antibiotics and biodegradable polymers were examined. The antibacterial efficiency of hydroxyapatite biomaterials impregnated with antibiotics and biodegradable polymers against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied by evaluating the expression of inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin-10 (IL-10), -defensin-2 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF- )) in tissue surrounding implanted biomaterials in vivo. The results of this study demonstrated that hydroxyapatite biomaterials impregnated with antibiotics and biodegradable polymers had a prolonged antibacterial effect in comparison to biomaterials without biodegradable polymers. Surrounding tissue displayed higher levels of inflammatory cytokines when implanted biomaterials had not been previously impregnated with antibiotics.

Open access

Tatjana Zaķe, Sandra Skuja, Aivars Lejnieks, Valērija Groma and Ilze Konrāde

Abstract

Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) mainly include Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and Graves’ disease (GD), which are characterised by the presence of circulating antibodies against various thyroid autoantigens and infiltration of the thyroid gland by autoreactive lymphocytes. Despite the significant advancement in the knowledge of AITD pathogenesis in the last decade, the specific immunological mechanisms responsible for development of the disease are not thoroughly understood. Classically, HT has long been considered as a T helper (Th)1-mediated disease, while a Th2-driven autoimmune response is dominant for GD development. However, this classification has changed due to the description of Th17 lymphocytes, which suggested participation of these cells in AITD, particularly HT pathogenesis. Moreover, a shift in the balance between Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) cells has been observed in thyroid autoimmunity. We have observed overexpression of IL-17, the prominent effector cytokine of Th17, within thyroid tissues from HT and GD patients in our studies. The present review will focus on recent data regarding the role of Treg and Th17 lymphocytes in AITD pathogenesis. In addition, the impact and proposed mechanisms of the predominant environmental factors triggering the autoimmune response to the thyroid will be discussed.

Open access

Vladislavs Jasinskis, Oksana Koļesova, Aleksandrs Koļesovs, Baiba Rozentāle, Inga Ažiņa, Ksenija Kramiča, Ludmila Vīksna and Jeļena Eglīte

Abstract

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) aims at suppressing viral replication and strengthening immune system in patients with HIV-1. Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) are among factors responsible for effectiveness of ART. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HLA Class II alleles on the response to long-time ART, assessed by a change in CD4+ T-cell count in relation to viral load. The sample included 69 patients (17 females and 52 males) aged 20 to 50 with HIV-1 infection, who were undergoing ART in the Latvian Centre of Infectious Diseases. The median period of observation was 5.7 years. CD4+ T-cell count and viral load were analysed at the baseline and end of the period of observation. HLA typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction with low resolution sequence specific primers. Multiple hierarchical linear regression analysis confirmed that an increase in HIV-1 viral load was associated with a decrease in the level of CD4+ T-cell count. In addition, HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA-DQB1*06:01 alleles contributed negatively to the level of CD4+ T-cell count.

Open access

Ismail Sahul Hamid and Malairaj Rajeswari

Abstract

Let SV. A vertex vV is a dominator of S if v dominates every vertex in S and v is said to be an anti-dominator of S if v dominates none of the vertices of S. Let 𝒞 = (V 1, V 2, . . ., Vk) be a coloring of G and let vV (G). A color class Vi is called a dom-color class or an anti domcolor class of the vertex v according as v is a dominator of Vi or an antidominator of Vi. The coloring 𝒞 is called a global dominator coloring of G if every vertex of G has a dom-color class and an anti dom-color class in 𝒞. The minimum number of colors required for a global dominator coloring of G is called the global dominator chromatic number and is denoted by χgd(G). This paper initiates a study on this notion of global dominator coloring.

Open access

Vladislavs Ananjevs, Aleksandra Ananjeva, Jānis Vētra, Andrejs Skaģers, Ilze Salma, Laura Neimane and Vladimir Kasyanov

Abstract

Bone density of the femur body of rabbit was determined in vivo. Experimental osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy and subsequent injections of methylprednisolone. In the greater trochanter region of right femur, defects were created and filled with granules of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate (HAP/TCP 70/30) or HAP/TCP 70/30 together with 5% strontium. After three months, the animals were euthanized. The bone mass density of the right and left body of femur was measured by cone beam computed tomography (CT) scan. The results of the study showed that the right femur of the rabbit, where biomaterials had been implanted, and the left femur, where no biomaterial implantation occurred, became denser after filling the defect with HAP/TCP 70/30 ceramic granules or 5% Sr modified HAP/TCP ceramic granules. There was no difference between operated and non-operated legs and HAP/TCP and HAP/TCP with 5% strontium groups.