Despite numerous scholarly attempts, there is a lack of consensus regarding the relevance of various factors influencing consumer’s intention to purchase organic food. The purpose of this study is to asses the impact of subjective and personal norms on consumer attitude toward buying organic food. Moreover, this study aims to explore the moderating role of contextual factors - product knowledge and consumer scepticism on the norms- attitude link. Data were collected through an online survey on a sample of 212 organic food buyers in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Moderated regression analysis was used to test the hypothesized relations between the constructs of interest. Findings indicate the subjective and personal norms are positively and significantly related to consumer attitude toward organic food purchases. Also, our findings revealed that product knowledge strengthens the subjective norms-attitude relationship, while consumer scepticism toward organic food claims weakens the subjective norms-attitude link. This study informs producers, marketers, and policy-makers about the relative importance of norms, scepticism, and knowledge in the context of organic food consumption.
Aertsens, J., Verbeke, W., Mondelaers, K., & van Huylenbroeck, G. (2009). Personal determinants of organic food consumption: A review, British Food Journal, Vol. 111 (10), 1140–1167. DOI: 10.1108/00070700910992961.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211. DOI: 10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T.
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behaviour. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Alibabic, V., Jokic, S., Mujic, I., Rudic, D., Bajramovic, M., & Jukic, H. (2011). Attitudes, behaviors, and perception of consumers’ from northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina toward food products on the market, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 2932–2937. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.217.
Arvola, A., Vassallo, M., Dean, M., Lampila, P., Saba, A., Lähteenmäki, L. & Shepherd, R. (2008). Predicting intentions to purchase organic food: The role of affective and moral attitudes in the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Appetite, 50 (2/3), 443-454. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2007.09.010
Brucks, M. (1985). The effects of product class knowledge on information search behaviour, Journal of Consumer Research, 12(1), 1-16. DOI: 10.1086/209031.
Cerjak, M., Mesić, Ž., Kopić, M., Kovačić, D., & Markovina, J. (2010). What motivates consumers to buy organic food: Comparison of Croatia, Bosnia Herzegovina, and Slovenia, Journal of Food Products Marketing, 16(3), 278-292. DOI: 10.1080/10454446.2010.484745.
Fenko, A., Kersten, L., Bialkova, S., & Bialkova, S. (2016). Overcoming consumer scepticism toward food labels: The role of multisensory experience, Food Quality and Preference, 48(A), 81-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2015.08.013.
Flynn, L. R., & Goldsmith, R. E. (1999). A short, reliable measure of subjective knowledge. Journal of Business Research, 46(1), 57-66. DOI: 10.1016/S0148-2963(98)00057-5
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: algebra and statistics., Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 382–388. DOI: 10.2307/3150980.
Goh S.K., & Balaji M.S. (2016). Linking green skepticism to green purchase behavior, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 131, 629-638. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.04.122.
Golob, U., Kos Koklic, M., Podnar, K., & Zabkar, V. (2018). The role of environmentally conscious purchase behaviour and green scepticism in organic food consumption. British Food Journal, 120(10), 2411-2424. DOI: 10.1108/BFJ-08-2017-0457.
Guagnano, G., Stern, P. C., & Dietz, T. (1995). Influences on attitude-behavior relationships: A natural experiment with curbside recycling. Environment and Behavior, 27(5), 699-718. DOI: 10.1177/0013916595275005.
Hair, J., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education International.
Hynes, N., & Wilson, J. (2016), I do it, but don’t tell anyone! Personal values, personal and social norms:: can social media play a role in changing pro-environmental behaviours?, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 111, 349-359. DOI: 10.1016/j.techfore.2016.06.034.
Hughner, R. S., McDonagh, P., Prothero, A., Shultz, C. J., & Stanton,NA J. (2007). Who are organic food consumers? A compilation and review of why people purchase organic food, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, Vol. 6, 1-17. DOI: 10.1002/cb.210.
Kaj P.N. M. and Ad Th.H. Pruyn (2003). Consumer skepticism toward new products. in E - European Advances in Consumer Research Volume 6, eds. Darach Turley and Stephen Brown, Provo, UT : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 351-358.
Klöckner, C. A., & Ohms, S. (2009), The importance of personal norms for purchasing organic milk, British Food Journal, 111(11), 1173-1187. DOI: 10.1108/00070700911001013.
Meyer-Höfer, M., Nitzko, s., & Spiller, A. (2015). Is there an expectation Gap? Consumers’ expectations towards organic. British Food Journal, 117(5), 1527-1546. DOI: 10.1108/BFJ-07-2014-0252.
Obermiller, C., & Spangenberg, E. R. (1998). Development of a scale to measure consumer skepticism toward advertising, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 7(2), 159-186. DOI: 10.1207/s15327663jcp0702_03.
Onwezen, M. C., Antonides, G., & Bartels, J. (2013). The norm activation model: An exploration of the functions of anticipated pride and guilt in pro-environmental behaviour. Journal of Economic Psychology, 39, 141-153. DOI: 10.1016/j.joep.2013.07.005.
Padel. S., & Foster, C. (2005). Exploring the gap between attitudes and behaviour: Understanding why consumers buy or do not buy organic food, British Food Journal, 107(8), 606-625. DOI: 10.1108/00070700510611002
Park, C.W., Maclnnis, D. J., Priester, J. R., Eisingerich, A. B., & Iacobucci, D. (2010). Brand attachment and brand attitude strength: Conceptual and empirical differentiation of two critical brand equity drivers. Journal of Marketing, 74(6), 1-17. DOI: 10.1509/jmkg.74.6.1.
Petljak, K., Štulec, I., & Renko. S. (2017). Consumer’s willingness to pay more for organic food in Croatia, Ekonomski vijesnik – Review of Contemporary Entrepreneurship, Business, and Economic Issues, 30(2), 441-465.
Pieniak, Z., Aertsens, J. & Verbeke, W. (2010). Subjective and objective knowledge as determinants of organic vegetables consumption. Food quality and preference, 21(6), 581-588. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2010.03.004
Schwartz, S.H. (1977). Normative influences on altruism. In Berkowitz, L. (Ed.). Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Academic Press, New York, NY.
Schwartz, S. H. & Howard, J. A. (1981). A normative decision-making model of altruism, In: P. J. Rushton and R. M. Sorrentino, Eds., Altruism and Helping Behavior: Social, Personality, and Developmental Perspectives, (pp. 189-211), Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale.
Skarmeas, D., & Leonidou, C. N. (2013). When consumers doubt, watch out! The role of CSR scepticism, Journal of Business Research, 66(10), 1831-1838. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.02.004.
Tarkiainen, A., & Sundqvist, S. (2005). Subjective norms, attitudes and intentions of Finnish consumers in buying organic food, British Food Journal, 107(11), 808-822. DOI: 10.1108/00070700510629760.
Thøgersen, J. (2009), The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behavior, Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 31(4), 348-362. DOI: 10.1080/01973530903317144.
Thøgersen, J. (2002), Promoting green consumer behavior with eco-labels, in Dietz, T., Stern, P. (Eds.), New tools for environmental protection: Education, information, and voluntary measures (pp. 83-104). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Yazdanpanah, M., & Forouzani, M. (2015), Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict Iranian students’ intention to purchase organic food, Journal of Cleaner Production, 107, 342-352. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.02.071.
Willer, H., & Lernoud, J. (2017). TheWorld of Organic Agriculture: Statistics and Emerging Trends 2017, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) and IFOAM-Organics International, Bonn.
Zagata, L. (2012), Consumers’ beliefs and behavioral intentions towards organic food. Evidence from the Czech Republic, Appetite, 59(1), 81-89. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.03.023