Bicycles’ Role in Road Accidents a Review of Literature

Open access

Abstract

Nearly 1.3 million people die in road crashes each year, on average 3,287 deaths a day. In 2013 in the European Union more than 6 % of all who died in road traffic crashes were cyclists. The number of cyclist killed on roads in the EU has decreased by only 9 %, compared to the total fatality decrease of 18 % from 2010 to 2013. The majority of cyclist fatalities are males (78 %). For the larger countries, Belgium and The Netherlands had the highest proportion of female cyclist fatalities (> 30 %). In general, 55 % of the bicycle fatalities in the EU countries were killed inside urban areas but there are large differences between the countries. In the last couple of years there has been an enormous effort on reduction in cycling fatality numbers across almost all ages in the EU. As a result of this effort, the number of accidents started to slightly decrease.

This paper reviews the literature concerning cyclist-motor vehicle collision and road safety management according to the cyclist role in the accident rise. The paper examines pedestrians safety in order to determine what kind of factors of transport infrastructure, vehicle technical parameters, cyclist behavior and road or street category have the influence on cyclist and vehicle accidents and identify technical reasons of the accidents rise. A review is conducted of information in the literature on the injury outcome of a cyclist/vehicle collision for a given impact speed and the likely consequences of reducing the travelling speeds of vehicles in terms of the frequency and severity of cyclist injuries.

1. Andersen, L.B., Schnohr, P., Schroll, M., Hein, H.O. (2000) All-cause mortalityassociated with physical activity during leisure time, work, sports, and cycling to work. Arch. Intern. Med. 160 (11), 1621-1628

2. Boufous, S., de Rome, L., Senserrick, T., Ivers, R.Q. (2013) Single-versus multi-vehicle bicycle road crashes in Victoria, Australia. Inj. Prev., 19 (5): 358-362

3. Cao Y., Zuo Z., Xu H. (2014) Analysis of Traffic Conflict Characteristic at Temporary Reversible Lane., Period. Polytech. Transp. Eng., (42)1:73-76, 2014. DOI: 10.3311/PPtr.7068

4. Fabriek, E., De Waard, D., Schepers, J.P. (2012) Improving the visibility of bicycle infrastructure. International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, 1:98-115.

5. Fernández-Heredia,Á., Monzón, A., Jara-Díaz, S. (2014) Understanding cyclists’ perceptions, keys for a successful bicycle promotion. Transportation Research Part A, 63:(1-11)

6. Harris, M.A., Reynolds, C.C., Winters, M., Cripton, P.A., Shen, H., Chipman, M.L. (2013) Comparing the effects of infrastructure on bicycling injury at intersections and non-intersections using a casecrossover design. Inj. Prev., 19 (5) :303-310.

7. Heesch, K. C, Garrard, J., Sahlqvist, S. (2011) Incidence, severity and correlates of bicycling injuries in a sample of cyclists in Queensland, Australia. Accident Analysis and Prevention,43 (20): 85-92.

8. Higgins, P.A.T. (2005) Exercise-based transportation reduces oil dependence, carbon emissions and obesity. Environ. Conserv. 32 (3), 197-202

9. Jankowska D., Wacowska-Slezak J., Zukowska J. (2014) Foreign visitors from Visegrad countries with regard to road safety in Poland. Period. Polytech. Transp. Eng., (42)1:77-83, DOI: 10.3311/PPtr.7250

10. Juhra, C., Wieskötter, B., Chu, K., Trost, L., Weiss, U., Messerschmidt, M. & Raschke, M. (2012) Bicycle accidents-Do we only see the tip of the iceberg: A prospective multi-centre study in a large German city combining medical and police data. Injury, 43(12), 2026-2034.

11. Kirolos,H.; Alluri,P.; Gan, A. (2015) Analyzing Pedestrian Crash Injury Severity at Signalized and Non-Signalized Locations, Accident Analysis and Prevention 81 (0): 14-23. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2015.04.025.

12. Liu, Y. Ch.; Tung, Y.Ch. (2014) Risk Analysis of Pedestrians’ Road-Crossing Decisions: Effects of Age, Time Gap, Time of Day, and Vehicle Speed, Safety Science, 63 (0): 77-82. doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2013.11.002.

13. Mitsakis E., Stamos I., SalanovaGrau J., Morfoulaki M. (2015) Bus Drivers Risk Perception of Roadway Hazards.Period. Polytech. Transp. Eng., (43)1:15-21, DOI: 10.3311/PPtr.7481

14. Mueller, N., Rojas-Rueda, D., Cole-Hunter, T., de Nazelle, A., Dons, E., Gerike, R., Goetschi, T., Panis, LI, Kahlmeier, S., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. (2015) Health impact assessment of active transportation: A systematic review. Preventive medicine, 76,103-114, ISSN: 0091-7435.

15. Piatkowski, D., Kevin P., Krizek J., Handy, S. L. (2015) Accounting for the Short Term Substitution Effects of Walking and Cycling in Sustainable Transportation, Travel Behaviour and Society 2 (1): 32-41. doi:10.1016/j.tbs.2014.07.004.

16. Schepers, J. P, Wolt, K.K. (2012) Single-bicycle crash types and characteristics. Cycling Research International, 2:119-35.

17. Shinar, D. (2012) Safety and Mobility of Vulnerable Road Users: Pedestrians, Bicyclists, and Motorcyclists. Safety and Mobility of Vulnerable Road Users: Pedestrians, Bicyclists, and Motorcyclists, 44 (1): 1-2. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2010.12.03.

18. Sipos T. (2014) Coherence between Horizontal and Vertical Curves and the Number of the Accidents. Period. Polytech. Transp. Eng., (42)2:167-172, 2014. DOI: 10.3311/PPtr.7224

19. Thomas, B., DeRobertis, M. (2013) The safety of urban cycle tracks: A review of the literature. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 52, 219-227.

20. Wang, N., Mitani, T., Yamanaka, H. (2012) An analysis between driver's visual field and bicycle accidents or vehicle's behavior at unsignalized small intersection on the arteria road, Journal of Japan Society Of Traffic Engineering, Vol.32, No.33 (in Japanese).

21. Wegman, F., Zhang, F., Dijkstra, A. (2012) How to make more cycling good for road safety, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 44(1):19-29.

Transport and Telecommunication Journal

The Journal of Transport and Telecommunication Institute

Journal Information


Cite Score 2017: 1.21

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.294
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.539

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 338 338 55
PDF Downloads 189 189 45