Evaluation of a Campus Service Quality Recreational Scale

Open access

Abstract

In the past two decades, several researchers have applied service quality frameworks in sport-related domains in measuring service quality among participants. However, university campus recreation has been scarce as compared to organised sport at local, regional and national levels, which often depends on a limited tenure linked to their membership as a registered student at a university. The purpose of the study is to investigate service quality dimensions as perceived by university leisure and recreation students. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 301 university students using a non-probability purposive sampling. Variables that constituted campus recreation service quality were operationalised through a literature review, including sport and recreational scales. Through factor analysis, seven distinct dimensions of campus recreation service quality were established. These factors were labelled: people interaction, facility design, sociability, physical change, equipment, ambience and program range. Item total correlations show satisfactory convergence of the items within their relevant constructs. This study complements the existing recreational sports body of knowledge by exploring campus recreation service quality. These dimensions may assist campus recreation mangers to understand the dimensions that are pertinent among students within a university context better. Recreation managers, in their periodic measurement of service quality, can incorporate these dimensions.

Anderson, J.C. & Gerbing, D.W. (1988) Structural equation modelling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103 (3): 411-423.

Astin, A.W. (1984) Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25 (4): 297-308.

Astin, A.W. (1999) Student Involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Development, 40: 518-529.

Baker, A. (1986) The role of the environment in marketing services: the customer perspective. In Czepiesl, J Congram, C. and Shanahan, J. (Eds), The services challenge: Integrating for competitive advantages. Chicago, IL.: American Marketing Association. Pp. 79-84.

Belch, H., Gebel, M. & Maas, G. (2001) Relationship between student recreation complex use, academic performance, and persistence of first time freshman. NASPA Journal, 38 (2): 254-268.

Bitner, M.J. (1992) Services capes the impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees. Journal of Marketing, 56 (2): 57-71.

Brady, M.K. (1997) Reconceptualizing perceived service quality: hierarchical model. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Tallahassee: Florida State University.

Brady, M.K. & Cronin, J., Jnr (2001) Some new thoughts on conceptualizing perceived service quality: a hierarchical approach. Journal of Marketing, 65 (3): 34-49.

Bryne, B.M. (1998) Structural equation modelling with LISREL, PRELIS, and SIMPLIS: basic concepts, applications and programming. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Canadian Parks and Recreation Association (2015) A year in review. October 2015. CPRA-ACPL, October 2015, 1-1.

Castle, J., Alman, R., Kostelnik, R. & Smith, S. (2015) Factors that affect the usage of fitness and recreation centers by students on College campuses. Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management, 2 (2): 100-119.

Celik, A. & Akyol, K. (2015) Predicting student satisfaction with an emphasis on campus recreation sports and cultural facilities in a Turkish University. International Education Studies, 8 (4): 7-22.

Dagger, T., Sweeney, J.C. & Johnson, J. (2007) Service quality attribute weights: How do novice and longer-term customers construct service quality performance? Journal of Service Research, 10 (1): 22-42.

Denison, C.B. (2013) Perceptions of dimensions of service quality and recreational benefits in collegiate recreational sports programs, Doctoral Dissertation. University of Northern Iowa: Uni Scholar Works.

Dhurup, M. (2014) Revisiting the salient dimensions of service quality in commercial health and fitness centres in South Africa: sport marketing. AJPHERD, 2 (20): 381-393.

Edginton, C.R., Hudson, S.D., Dieser, R.B. & Edginton, S.R. (2004) Leisure programming: a service-centered and benefits approach, Second Edition, Dubuque, IA.: McGraw-Hill.

Ellis, G., Compton, D., Tyson, B. & Bohlig, M. (2002) Campus recreation participation, health and quality of life. NIRSA Journal, 26 (2): 51-60.

Field, A.P. (2005) Discovering statistics using SPSS, Second Edition, London: Sage.

Fornell, C. & Larcker, F. (1981) Education SEM with unobservable variables and measurement errors. Journal of Marketing Research, 18 (1):39-50.

Forrester, A. (2014) The perceived benefits of participating in campus recreation programmes and facilities. Recreational Sports Journal, 37 (2): 97-105.

Gao, Q., Dai, Y. Fan, Z. & Kang, R. (2010) Understanding factors affecting perceived sociability of social software. Computers in Human Behaviour, 26 (6): 1846-1861.

Garcia, J.A.M. & Caro, L.M. (2010) Rethinking perceived service quality: an alternative to hierarchical and multidimensional models. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 21 (1): 93-118.

Gaskin, D. (2015) Confirmatory factor analysis: Gaskination’s StatsWiki. Available: http://statwiki.kalabkreations.com. Accessed: 20 August 2016.

Godbey, G. (2009) Outdoor recreation, health and wellness: understanding and enhancing the relationship. Resources for the future, May, 09-21.

Hackett, M. (2007) Exploring the relationship between recreational sports employment and academic success. Recreational Sports Journal, 30 (2): 114-123.

Haines, D.J. (2001) Undergraduate student benefits from university recreation. Recreational Sports Journal, 25 (1): 25-33.

Haines, D.J. (2007) National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association member survey results. Columbus OH: Ohio State University.

Hartline, M.D. & Ferrel, O.C. (1996) The management of customer contact service employee: an empirical investigation. Journal of Marketing, 69 (October): 52-70.

Hartmann, D. (2003) Theorizing sport as social intervention: a view from the grassroots. Quest, 55 (2): 118-140.

Henchy, A. (2013) The influence of campus recreation beyond the gym. Recreational Sports Journal, 35: 74-181.

Howat, G., Absher, J., Crilley, G.& Milne, I. (1996) Measuring customer service quality in sports and leisure centers. Managing Leisure, 1: 77-89.

Howat, G., Crilley, G. & McGrath, R. (2008) A focused service quality, benefits, overall satisfaction and loyalty model for public aquatic centres. Managing Leisure. 13:139-161.

Huesman, R.L., Brown, A.K, Giljae, L, Kellogg, J.P. & Radcliffe, P.M. (2009) Gym bags and mortarboards: Is use of campus recreation facilities related to student access? NASPA Journal, 46 (1): 50-71.

Hulland, J. (1999) Use of partial least squares (PLS). In strategic management research: a review of four recent studies. Strategic Management Journal, 20 (2): 195-204.

Kaiser, H.F. (1974) An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39: 31-36.

Khosravi, H., Gharai, F. & Taghavi, S.H. (2015) The impact of local built environment attributes on the elderly sociability. Urban Design, 25 (1): 35-45.

Kim, D. & Kim, S.Y. (1995) QUESC: An instrument for assessing the service quality of sport centres in Korea. Journal of Sports Management, 4: 208-220.

Ko Y.J. & Pastore, D.L. (2005) A hierarchical model of service quality for the recreational sport industry. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 14 (2): 84-97.

Ko, Y.J. & Pastore, D.L. (2007) An instrument to assess customer perceptions of service quality and satisfaction in campus recreation programs. Recreational Sports Journal, 3 (1): 34-42.

Lagrosen, S. & Lagrosen, Y. (2016) Service quality in fitness centres - examining the dimensions. Asia Pacific Journal of Advanced Business and Social Studies, 17 (1): 41-53.

Lam, E.T.C., Zang, J.J. & Jengsen, B.E. (2005) Service quality assessment scale (SQAS): an instrument for evaluating service quality of health-fitness clubs. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 9 (2): 79-111.

Lee, J.H. (2003) The modeling and simulation of dynamic supply chain: a multi-agent systems approach. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Cambridge: Cambridge.

Lindsey, J. & Sessoms, L.A (2006) Assessment of a campus recreation programs on recruitment, retention, and frequency of participation across certain demographic variables. Recreational Sports Journal, 30 (1): 30-39.

Lundberg, N., Bennet, J. & Smith, S. (2011) Outcomes of adaptive sports and recreation participation among veterans returning from combat with acquired disability. Therapeutic Recreational Journal, 19 (2): 105-120.

Malhotra, N.K. (2010) Marketing research: an applied orientation. Sixth Edition. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Mansor, A.A., Hasanordin, R., Rashid, M.H. & Rashid, W.E. (2012) Hierarchical service quality model towards student satisfaction. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 3 (6): 1-12.

Masmanidis, T., Tsigilis, N. & Costa, G. (2015) Perceived constraints of campus recreational sports programs: eevelopment and validation of an instrument. Journal of Physical Education & Sport, 6 (2): 9-18

Mazis, M.B, Ahtola, OT. & Klippel, R.E. (1975) A comparison of four multi-attitude models in the prediction of consumer attitudes. Journal of Consumer Research, 2 (2): 38-52.

Milne, G.R. & McDonald, M.A. (1999) Sport marketing: managing the exchange process. University of Michigan.

Moffitt, J. (2010) Collegiate recreational participation and retention. Recreational Sports Journal, 37: 85-96.

Morris, L., Sallybanks, J., Willis, K. & Makkai, T. (2003) Sport, physical activity and antisocial behavior in youth. Australian Institute of Criminology, 249: 1-6.

National Intramural – Recreational Sports Association. (2014) The value of recreational sports in higher education: impact on student enrolment, success, and buying power. Champaign, I.L.: Human Kinetics.

Nichlos, G. (2007) Sport and crime reduction: the role of sports in tackling youth crime. London: Routledge.

Norman, G.J., Nutter, S.K., Ryan, S., Sallis, J.F., Calfas, J. & Patrick, K. (2006) Community design and access to recreational facilities as correlates of adolescent physical activity and body-mass index. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 3 (Suppl.1): S118-S128.

Osman, R.W., Cole, S.T. & Vessel, C.R. (2006) Examining the role of perceived service quality in predicting user satisfaction and behavioural intentions in campus recreation setting. Recreational Sports Journal, 30 (1): 20-29.

Pallant, J. (2013) SPSS survival manual. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Parasuraman, A. (1985) A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49 (4): 41-50.

Scott, C. (2014) The effect of university campus recreation programs on student retention. Online Thesis and Dissertation. 315. http://encompass.eku.edu/etd.

Schmidt, B. (2017) Factors influencing the effectiveness of campus recreation management: a structural equation model. Human Movement, 18(2):68-76.

Soleymani, M., Zarei, A., Tojari, F. & Ghafouri, F. (2012) A study of the relationship between the quality of services and customers satisfaction with recreational sports programs with regards to the moderating role of identity. European Journal of Sports Science, 1 (1): 29-35.

Sturts, J. R. & Ross, C.M. (2013) Collegiate intramural sports participation: identified social outcomes. International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation and Tourism, 11: 25-41.

Tang, E.P.Y., Chan, R.Y.K. & Tai, S.H.C. (2001) Asians dimensions of service quality. NY, USA: International Business Press.

Tinto, V. (1993) Leaving college: rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition. Second Edition. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.

Todd, M.K., Czyszczon, J.W.C. & Pratt, C. (2009) Comparison of health and recreation indices between campus recreation facility users and nonusers. Recreational Sports Journal, 33 (2009): 43-43.

Torkildsen, G. (1999) Leisure and recreation management. New York: Routledge.

Wright, B.A., Duray, N. & Goodale, T.L. (1992): Assessing perceptions of recreation center service quality: an application of recent advancements in service quality research. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 10 (3): 33-47

Yarimoglu, K.E. (2014) A review on dimensions of service quality models. Journal of Marketing Management, 2 (2): 79-93.

Yeo, R.K. (2008) Brewing service quality in higher education: characteristics of ingredients that make up the recipe. Quality Assurance in Education, 16 (3): 266-286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09684880810886277

Young, M.E.M. & Potgieter, N. (2004) Education and training in recreation management at tertiary institutions in South Africa. AJPHERD, 10 (1): 90-98.

Young, J.S., Ramos, W.D., York, S.L & Fletcher, A.L. (2016) On the 25th anniversary of the ADA: How inclusive are campus recreation programs? Journal of Legal Aspects of Sports, 26: 22-35.

Zizzi, S., Ayers, S.F., Watson, J.C. & Keeler, L.A. (2004) Assessing the impact of new student campus recreation centers. NASPA Journal, 41 (4): 588.

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 175 166 13
PDF Downloads 107 101 9