This study’s purpose was to investigate how junior football players representing a professional club experienced stressors according to there given playing time. Participants (N43) represented 3 football clubs (mean 17.4 yrs). The results showed that the players playing all matches reported a lower level of stress related to performance and future stress compared to the players playing few matches. Furthermore, evaluation and performance stress was reported higher among player given few matches compared to players playing most matches. Even so, the present study found that Norwegian junior players have a low level of stress. Based on this fact, our results suggest that coaches should focus on the players playing few matches, since they reported a higher level of stress on three dimensions, potentially impairing their development as football players.
Andersen, S. S., Hansen, P. Ø., & Hærem, T. (2015). How elite athletes reflect on their training: Strong beliefs –ambiguous feedback signals. Reflective Practice, 16, 403-417.
Ashworth, J., & Heyndels, B. (2007). Selection bias and peer effects in team sports: The effect of age grouping on earnings of German soccer players. Journal of Sports Economics, 8, 355–377.
Barnsley, R.H., Thompson, A.H. & Barnsley, P.E. (1985) Hockey success and birthdate: the relative age effect. CAHPER Journal, 51, 8, 23–28.
Bloom, B. S. (1985). Developing talent in young people. New York: Ballantine.
Brink, M. S., Visscher, C., Arends, S., Zwerver, J., Post, W. J., & Lemmink, K. A. (2010). Monitoring stress and recovery: New insights for the prevention of injuries and illnesses in elite youth soccer players. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(11), 809-815.
Byrne, D. G., Davenport, S. C., & Mazanov, J. (2007). Profiles of adolescent stress: The development of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ). Journal of Adolescence, 30, 393-416.
Côtè, J. og Fraser-Thomas, J. (2008) Play, practice and athlete development. In D., Farrow, J., Baker, & C. MacMahon, (eds) Developing sport expertise. Routledge, London.
Deprez, D. N., Fransen, J., Lenoir, M., Philippaerts, R. M., & Vaeyens, R. (2015). A retrospective study on anthropometrical, physical fitness, and motor coordination characteristics that influence dropout, contract status, and first-team playing time in high-level soccer players aged eight to eighteen years. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 29(6), 1692-1704.
Elferink-Gemser, M. T., Visscher, C., Richart, H., & Lemmink, K. A. P. M. (2004). Development of the Tactical Skills Inventory in sports. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 99, 883-895.
Finn, J., & McKenna, J. (2010). Coping with academy-to-first-team transitions in elite English male team sports: The coaches’ perspective. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 5, 257-279.
Fletcher, D., Hanton, S., & Mellalieu, S. D. (2006). An organizational stress review: Conceptual and theoretical issues in competitive sport. In S. Hanton & S. D. Mellalieu (Eds.), Literature reviews in sport psychology (pp. 321-374). New York: Nova Science.
Fraser-Thomas, J., Côté, J., & Deakin, J. (2008). Understanding dropout and prolonged engagement in adolescent competitive sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9, 645-662.
Gagné, F. (2000) Understanding the complex choreography of talent development through DMGT-based analysis. In K. A. Heller, F. J. Mönks, R. J. Sternberg, & R. Subotnik (Eds). International handbook for research on giftedness and talent (2nd edn). Oxford, Pergamon Press, 67–79.
Grant, K. E, Compas, B. E., Stuhlmacher, A. F., Thurm, A. E., McMahon, S. D., & Halpert, J. A. (2003). Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: Moving from markers to mechanisms of risk. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 447-466.
Gustafsson, H., & Skoog, T. (2012). The mediational role of perceived stress in the relation between optimism and burnout in competitive athletes. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 25, 183-199.
Gustafsson, H., Skoog, T., Podlog, L., Lundqvist, C., & Wagnsson, S. (2013). Hope and burnout: Stress and affect as mediators. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14, 640-649.
Helsen W.F., Baker J., Michiels S., Schorer J., Van Winckel J.V., Williams M. (2012) The relative age effect in European professional soccer: did ten years of research make any difference? Journal of Sports Sciences, 30 (15), 1665—71.
Holt, N. L., & Dunn, J. G. H. (2004). Grounded theory of the psychosocial competencies and environmental conditions associated with soccer success. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16, 199-219.
Ivarsson, A., Stenling, A., Fallby, J., Johnson, U., Borg, E., & Johansson, G. (2015). The predictive ability of the talent development environment on youth elite football players’ well-being: A person-centered approach. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16, 15-23.
Kannekens, R., Elferink-Gemser, M. T., Post, W. J., & Visscher, C. (2009). Self-Assessed tactical skills in elite youth soccer players: A longitudinal study. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 109, 459-472.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.
Lazarus, R. S. (2000). How emotions influence performance in competitive sports. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 229-252.
Moksnes, U. K., Byrne, D. G., Mazanov, J., & Espnes, G. A. (2010). Adolescent stress: Evaluation of the factor structure of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ-N). Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51, 203-209.
Raedeke, T. D., & Smith, A. L. (2004). Coping resources and athlete burnout: An examination of stress mediated and moderation hypotheses. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 26, 525-541.
Reeves, C. W., Nicholls, A. R., & McKenna, J. (2009). Stressors and coping strategies among early and middle adolescent premier league academy football players: Differences according to age. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21, 31-48.
Richardson, D., Gilbourne, S., & Littlewood, M. (2004). Developing support mechanisms for elite young players in a professional football academy: Creative reflections in action research. European Sport Management Quarterly, 4, 195-214.
Sager, S. S., Busch, B. K., & Jowett, S. (2010). Success and failure, fear of failure, and coping responses of adolescent academy football players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22, 213-230.
Sæther, S. A. (2015). Selecting players for youth national teams – a question of birth month and reselection? Science & Sports, 30(6), 314-320.
Sæther, S. A. & Solberg, H. A. (2015). Talent Development in football: Are young talents given time to blossom? Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 5, 5, 493 – 506
Sæther, S. A., Aspvik, N. P., & Høigaard, R. (2016) Norwegian football academy players - players’ characteristics, stress and coach-athlete relationship. (Submitted).
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Toering, T. T., Elferink-Gemser, M. T., Jordet, G., & Visscher, C. (2009). Self-regulated and performance level of elite and non-elite youth soccer players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(14), 1509-1517.