The Complex Motor Sprint Start Performance as a Double Constraint Management
In this study, the sprint start was investigated as a double constraint management: straightening 8 up from the ground to sprint forward. This management was explored using three separate groups of expertise defined according to individual sprint performance over 100 m (expert, intermediate and non sprinter). Two experimental conditions were studied according to the position in the starting-blocks: a spontaneous condition (S) and a forward perturbed condition (P) which aimed to carry the body weight more on the arms. In S condition, the statistical analyses showed that subjects were split into three classes according to the similarity of the data. These classes were not totally similar to the original groups of differing expertise. Class 1S subjects presented an efficient motor organization in which initial posture, straightening up and velocity were linked. In P condition, the sprinters were only split into two classes and sprint start efficiency was degraded. Nevertheless, the class 1P was perfectly superimposed on the expert group and presented a more homogenous response than that observed in class 1S. The motor synergies of the intermediate level could not be stabilized. This group and the non sprinter group belonged to the same class due to the similarity of their motor structure as the result of the perturbation.
Ae, M., Ito, A., & Suzuki, M. (1992). The men's 100 metres. IAAF quaterly, 7, 47-52.
Baumann, W. (1976). Kinematic and dynamic characteristics of sprint start. In P. V. Komi, (ed.), Biomechanics V-B (pp. 194-199). Baltimore: University Park Press.
Boisnoir, A., Decker, L., Reine, B., & Natta, F. (2007). Validation of an integrated experimental set-up for kinetic and kinematic three-dimensional analyses in a training environment. Sports Biomechanics, 6, 215-223.
Bonnet, M., Requin, J., & Semjen, A. (1981). Human reflexology and motor preparation. Exercice and Sport Sciences Revews, 9, 119-157.
Bouisset, S. & Zattara, M. (1992). Intentional movement as a perturbation to balance and posturo-kinetic capacity. In A. Pedotti, & M. Ferrarin, (eds), Restoration of walking for paraplegics. Recent advancements and Trends (pp. 75-81). Milano: Pro Juventute pub.
Bousset, S. & Le Bozec, S. (2002). Posturo-kinetic capacity and postural function in volontary movements. In M. L. Latash (ed). Progress in motor control: Structurefunction, relations in voluntary movements (pp. 25-52). Human Kinetics.
Breniere, Y., & Do, M. C. (1986). When and how does steady state gait movement induced from upright posture begin? Journal of Biomechanics, 19, 1035-1040.
Breniere, Y., & Do, M. C. (1991). Control of gait initiation. Journal of motor behaviour, 24, 235-240.
Crenna, P., & Frigo, C. (1991). A motor programme for the initiation of forwardoriented movements in humans. Journal of Physiology, 437, 635-653.
Delecluse, C., van Coppenolle, H., Willems, E., Diels, R., Goris, M., van Leemputte, M. & Vuylsteke, M. (1995). Analysis of 100 meter sprint performance as a multidimensional skill. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 28, 87-101.
Delecluse, C. (1997). Influence of strength training on sprint running performance. Current findings and implications for training. Sports Medicine, 24, 147-156.
Harland, M. J., & Steele, J. R. (1997). Biomechanics of the sprint start. Sports Medicine, 23, 11-20.
Jacobs, R., & van Ingen Schenau, G. J. (1992). Intermuscular coordination in a sprint push-off. Journal of Biomechanics, 25, 953-965.
Kraan, G. A., van Veen, J., Snijders, C. J., & Storm, J. (2001). Starting from standing; why step backwards? Journal of Biomechanics, 34, 211-215.
Lepers, R., Breniere, Y., & Maton, B. (1999). Changes to the gait initiation programme following a running exercise in human subjects. Neuroscience Letters, 260, 69-73.
Massion, J. (1998). Postural Control Systems in Developmental Perspective. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 22, 465-472.
Mero, A., Luhtanen, P., & Komi, P. V. (1983). A biomechanical study of the sprint start. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sport, 5, 20-28.
Mero, A. (1988). Force-time characteristics and running velocity of male sprinters during the acceleration phase of sprinting. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 59, 94-98.
Mero, A., & Komi, P. V. (1990). Reaction time and electromyographic activity during a sprint start. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 61, 73-80.
Mero, A., Komi, P. V., & Gregor, R. J. (1992). Biomechanics of sprint running. A review. Sports Medicine, 13, 376-392.
Mero, A., Kuitunen, S., Harland, M., Kyrolainen, H., & Komi, P. V. (2006). Effects of muscle-tendon length on joint moment and power during sprint starts. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24, 165-173.
Mihelj, M., Matjacic, Z., & Bajd, T. (2000). Postural activity of constrained subject in response to disturbance in sagittal plane. Gait & Posture, 12, 94-104.
Natta, F., & Brenière, Y. (1998). Influence de la posture initiale dans le départ de sprint en starting-blocks. Science et Motricité, 34, 44-51.
Natta, F. (1990). Effets de la posture initiale sur l'initiation de la course: recherche d'une position optimale pour le départ du sprint. Unpublished PhD's thesis, University of Paris-sud Orsay, France.
Natta, F., & Réga, C. (2001). Analyse cinétique et cinématique du départ en starting-blocks et de la foulée de course à pleine vitesse. Rapport de recherche Ministère de la Jeunesse et des Sports. Paris: Institut National du Sport et de l'Education Physique, Département des Sciences du Sport.
Ropret, R., Kukolj, M., Ugarkovic, D., Matavulj, D., & Jaric, S. (1998). Effects of arm and leg loading on sprint performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 77, 547-550.
Schot, P. K., & Knutzen, K. M. (1992). A biomechanical analysis of four sprint start positions. Reseach Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 63, 137-147.
Vernazza, S., Alexandrov, A., & Massion, J. (1996). Is the centre of gravity controlled during upper trunk movements? Neuroscience Letters, 206, 77-80.
Van Coppenolle, H., Delecluse, C., Goris, M., & Diels, R. (1990). Evaluation of the start and sprint action. In G. P. Brüggeman & J. K. Rühl (eds.). Techniques in athletics (pp. 396-401). Cologne: Sporthochschüle.
Zatsiorsky, V., Seluyanov, V., & Chugunova, L. (1990). In vivo body segment inertial parameters determination using a gamma-scanner method. In N. Berne & A. Cappozzo (eds). Biomechanics of human movement: application in rehabilitation, sports and ergonomics (pp. 186-202). Worthington: Bertec Corporation.