Morality of Christian Athletes in Competitive Sports - A Review

Open access

Morality of Christian Athletes in Competitive Sports - A Review

Athletes' moral beliefs and values are challenged by competitive sports just as long as the professional elite-sports system exists. Christian athletes, as a distinguished group among competing athletes, are supposed to be people with specific and distinctive moral guidelines in everyday life that they validly integrate in competitive sports as well. No matter if they are competing in triathlon, athletics, or playing soccer, if they are playing in the lowest or highest division of their sport, or if they are being faced with unmoral situations, that is what we expect. They therefore stand in contrast to some athletes of today's competitive sports who do not seem to have any guideline at all anymore, who would not shy at anything to win a competition and who therefore give competitive sports a rather negative touch. The following review should shed some light on the world of Christian sportsmen. The relationships in the field of Christianity, ethics, morality, and sports will be investigated in-depth via analyzing the relevant literature. Both theoretical and empirical findings will be systematized according to their inner structure. Even though the findings to report are rare, the particular field of study reveals itself as an under-researched topic, likewise theoretically and empirically.

Baker, W. J. (Ed.). (2000a). If Christ Came to the Olympics. Sydney: UNSW Press.

Baker, W. J. (2000b). Gods and Games. Religious Aspects of the Modern Olympics. In W. J. Baker (Ed.), If Christ Came to the Olympics (pp. 9-20). Sydney: UNSW Press.

Beller, J., et al. (1995). The Relationship of Competition and a Christian Liberal Arts Education on Moral Reasoning of College Student Athletes. Ypsilanti: Eastern Michigan University, Department of HPERD.

Benn, T., Dagkas, S., & Jawad, H. (2011). Embodied faith: Islam, religious freedom and educational practices in physical education. Sport, Education and Society, 16(1), 17-34.

Benett, G., Sagas, M., Fleming, D., & von Roenn, S. (2005). On being a living contradiction: the struggle of an elite intercollegiate Christian coach. Journal of Beliefs and Values, 26(3), 289-300.

Blaxter, L., Hughes, C., & Tight, M. (2001). How to research. Buckingham: Open University.

Boxill, J. (2003a). Sports Ethics - An Anthology. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing.

Boxill, J. (2003b). The Ethics of Competition. In J. Boxill (Ed.), Sports Ethics - An Anthology (pp. 107-115). Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing.

Coakley, J. J. (1986a). Sport and religion, is it a promising combination? In J. J. Coakley (Ed.), Sport in Society (pp. 45-59). St. Louis: Times Mirror/Mosby College Publishing.

Coakley, J. J. (Ed.). (1986b). Sport in Society. St. Louis, MO: Times Mirror/Mosby College Publishing.

Coakley, S. (1997). Religion and the Body. Cambridge: University Press.

Conrad, J., & Lau, A. (2010). Einfluss religiöser Einstellungen von Athletinnen und A thleten auf ihr leistungssportliches Leben. Paper presented at the conference "Körper, Kult und Konfessionen" in Frankfurt a. M., Germany.

Eitzen, D. S., & Sage, G. H. (Eds.). (1989a). Sociology of North American Sport. Dubuque: W. C. Brown.

Eitzen, D. S., & Sage, G. H. (1989b). Sport and Religion. In D. S. Eitzen & G. H. Sage (Eds.), Sociology of North American Sport (pp. 141-171). Dubuque: W. C. Brown.

Garratt, D. (2010). "Sporting Citizenship": The Rebirth of Religion? Pedagogy, Culture and Society, 18(2), 123-143.

Griffith, R. M. (2004). Born Again Bodies. Flesh and Spirit in American Christianity. Berkeley; Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Gustafson, J. M. (1981). Theology and ethics. Oxford: Blackwell.

Güldenpfennig, S. (2000). Sport: Kritik und Eigensinn. Der Sport der Gesellschaft. Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag.

Hart, C. (2001). Doing a literature search. A comprehensive guide for the social sciences. London: Sage.

Hertz, A., Korff, W., & Rendtorff, T. (1993a). Handbuch der christlichen Ethik. Bestandsaufnahme und Grundlagenfragen (1). Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder.

Hertz, A., Korff, W., & Rendtorff, T. (1993b). Handbuch der christlichen Ethik. Problemfelder ethischen Handelns (2). Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder.

Hertz, A., Korff, W., & Rendtorff, T. (1993c). Handbuch der christlichen Ethik. Wege ethischer Praxis heute (3). Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder.

Higgs, R. J. (1992). Muscular Christianity, Holy Play and Spiritual Exercises. Confusion about Christ in Sports and Religion. In S. J. Hoffman (Ed.), Sport and Religion (pp. 89-103). Champaign: Human Kinetics.

Higgs, R. J. (1995). God in the Stadium. Sports and Religion in America. Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky.

Higgs, R. J., & Braswell, M. C. (2004). An Unholy Alliance. The Sacred and Modern Sports. Macon: Mercer University Press.

Hoffman, S. J. (Ed.). (1992a), Sport and Religion. Champaign: Human Kinetics.

Hoffman, S. J. (1992b). Sport, Religion, and Ethics. In S. J. Hoffman (Ed.), Sport and Religion (pp. 213-225). Champaign: Human Kinetics.

Hoffman, S. J. (1999). The decline of civility and the rise of religion in American sport. Quest 51(1), 69-84.

Hubbard, S. (1998). Faith in Sports. Athletes and Their Religion on and off the Field. New York; London: Doubleday.

Kahan, D. (2005). Jewish Day-Schooled Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental and Environmental Support of Physical Activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 76(3), 243-250.

Kahan, D. (2011). AAA Roadmap for Navigating Religion in Physical Education. Strategies: A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators, 24(4), 20-24.

Kelly, B. C., Hoffman, S. J., & Gill, D. L. (1990). The relationship between competitive orientation and religious orientation. Journal of Sport Behavior, 13(3), 145-156.

Ladd, T., & Mathisen, J. A. (1999). Muscular Christianity. Evangelical Protestants and the Development of American Sport. Grand Rapids: Baker Books.

Lawrence, I. (2005). The Emergence of ‘Sport and Spirituality’ in Popular Culture. York: School of Sport Science and Psychology.

Lay, N. (1993). Sport and Religion. An unholy Alliance. Knoxville: University of Tennessee.

McIntosh, P. (Ed.). (1979). Fair Play. Ethics in Sport and Education. London: Heinemann Educational Books.

Morgan, W. J. (2007). Ethics in Sport (2nd ed.). Champaign: Human Kinetics.

Roth, J. K. (2001). Ethics and religion. Remembering for the future. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Pawlenka, C. (Ed.). (2004). Sportethik. Regeln - Fairneß - Doping. Paderborn: Mentis.

Prebish, C. S. (1993). Religion and Sport. The Meeting of the Sacred and the Profane. London: Greenwood.

Schroeder, P. J., & Scribner, J. P. (2006). "To Honor and Glorify God": The Role of Religion in One Intercollegiate Athletics Culture. Sport, Education and Society, 11(1), 39-54.

Schweiker, W. (2005). The Blackwell Companion to Religious Ethics. Oxford: Blackwell.

Slusher, H. (1992). Sport: Morality and Ethics. In S. J. Hoffman (Ed.), Sport and Religion (pp. 227-236). Champaign: Human Kinetics.

Sternberg, T. (2003). Geschichte der christlichen Sportbewegung. In H.-G. Ulrich, T. Engelhardt & G. Treutlein (Eds.), Körper, Sport und Religion - Interdisziplinäre Beiträge (pp. 31-50). Idstein: Schulz Kirchner Verlag.

Storch, E. A., Kolsky, A. R., Silvestri, S. M., & Storch, J. B. (2001). Religiosity of elite college athletes. Sport Psychologist, 15(3), 346-351.

Storch, E. A., Storch, J. B., Kovacs, A. H., Okun, A., & Welsh, E. (2003). Intrinsic religiosity and substance use in intercollegiate athletes. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 25(2), 248-252.

Syed, M. (2010). The players with God on their Side. Times Online [on-line].

Ulrich, H.-G., Engelhardt, T., & Treutlein, G. (Eds.). (2003). Körper, Sport und Religion - Interdisziplinäre Beiträge. Idstein: Schulz Kirchner Verlag.

Williamson, K. (1998). Discovered by chance: the role of incidental information acquisition in an ecological model of information use. Library and Information Science Research, 20(1), 23-40.

Sport Science Review

The Journal of National Institute for Sport Research

Journal Information

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 377 377 44
PDF Downloads 167 167 20