Field experiments determined copper and zinc content and accumulation in yellow lupine roots, stems, leaves, flowers, pods and seeds. The test factors included development stages (BBCH 65 and BBCH 90) at which harvest was performed as well as nitrogen doses (0, 30, and 120 kg·ha−1) introduced to the soil prior to sowing. A higher copper content (by an average of 20.9%) and zinc content (by 53.7%) were obtained in the whole mass of lupine harvested at the flowering stage compared to that at the full maturity stage. Yellow lupine fertilised with 120 kg N·ha−1 contained and took up more copper and zinc than both lupine cultivated without nitrogen fertilization and fertilised with 30 kg N·ha−1. The application of different nitrogen doses had no significant effect on the contents of the micronutrients in the seeds of the test plant. The amount of copper and zinc accumulated in the seeds was the largest following the application of 120 kg N·ha−1. Lupine accumulated the largest amounts of both elements in the leaves irrespective of the development stage at which the harvest was carried out. The bioaccumulation factor for copper and zinc was higher in the lupine harvested at the flowering stage than in the lupine harvested at full maturity, but it was not significantly determined by the applied nitrogen fertilization. The values of translocation coefficient for the tested heavy metals, usually higher than 1, indicate significant potential for their accumulation in yellow lupine biomass. Under conditions of an increased zinc content in the soil, lupine green matter harvested at the flowering stage contained an above-standard amount of this heavy metal and could not be used for animal feed.
Baran A., Jasiewicz C., 2009. The toxicity content of zinc and cadmium in soli to different plant species. Environmental Protection and Natural Resources 40: 157–164 (in Polish).
Bleinholder H., Weber E., Feller C., Hess M., Wicke H., Meier U., Boom T., Lancashire P.D., Buhr L., Hack H., Klose R., Strauss R., 2001. Growth stages of mono- and dicotyledonous plants. BBCH Monograph. Uwe Meier (ed.). Braunschweig, 1–160.
Curyło T., Jasiewicz C., 1998. Comparison of the effect of multi-component organic-mineral and mineral fertilizers on the yield and the uptake of heavy metals by plants. Folia Universitatis Agriculturae Stetinensis, Agricultura 72: 35–41 (in Polish).
Dzieżyc J., Nowak L., Panek K., 1987. Ten-day indices of rainfall requirements of crops cultivated in Poland. Advances of Agricultural Sciences Problem Issues 314: 11–33.
Ehsan M., Lara Viverso F.M., Hernandez V.E., Barakat M.A., Ortega A.R., Maza A.V., Monter J.V., 2015. Zinc and cadmium accumulation by Lupinus uncinatus Schldl. grown in nutrient solution. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 12: 307–316.
Grzebisz W., Diatta J.B., Barłóg P., 1998. Heavy metal extraction by fibrous plants from soils polluted with copper works emissions. Part 1. Cannabis sativa. Advances of Agricultural Sciences Problem Issues 460: 685–695 (in Polish).
Grzyś E., 2004. The role and importance of micronutrients in plant nutrition. Advances of Agricultural Sciences Problem Issues 502: 89–99.
Jasiewicz C., Antonkiewicz J., 2000. Extraction of heavy metals by plants from soils contaminated with heavy metals. Part II. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Advances of Agricultural Sciences Problem Issues 472: 331–339 (in Polish).
Kabata-Pendias A., Mukherjee A.B., 2007. Trace elements from soil to Human. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg: 561 pp.
Kabata-Pendias A., Motowicka-Terelak T., Piotrowska M., Terelak H., Witek T., 1993. Evaluation of the degree of soil and plant pollution of heavy metals and sulfur. Framework guidelines for agriculture. Wyd. IUNG Puławy: 20 ss. (in Polish).
Kabata-Pendias A., Pendias H., 1999. Biogeochemistry of trace elements. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa: 111–126, 144–156 (in Polish).
Krzywy-Gawrońska E., 2007. Chemical analysis of soils, fertilizers and plants. Wydawnictwo Akademii Rolniczej w Szczecinie, 199 pp.
Mercik S., Stępień W., Gębski M., 2003. Uptake by plants and solubility of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in different extracting solutions depending on soil acidification. Advances of Agricultural Sciences Problem Issues 493: 913–921.
Mourato M.P., Martins L.L., Campos-Andrada M.P., 2009. Physiological responses of Lupinus luteus to different copper concentrations. Biologia Plantarum 53, 1: 105–111.
Murawska B., Lipińska K.J., Mitura K., Piekut A., Jachymska J., 2015. Mobility of zinc and copper in light soil depending on long-term nitrogen and potassium fertilization. Infrastructure and Ecology of Rural Areas III/1: 677–689 (in Polish).
Ociepa E., Pachura P., Ociepa-Kubicka A., 2014. Effect of fertilization unconventional migration of heavy metals in the soil-plant system. Engineering and Protection of Environment 17, 2: 325–338 (in Polish).
Pinto A.P., Mota A.M., De Varennes A., Pinto F.C., 2004. Influence of organic matter on the uptake of cadmium, zinc, copper, and iron by sorghum plants. Science of the Total Environment 326: 239–247.
Rabikowska B., Piszcz U., 2004. Effect of differentiated nitrogen fertilization on utilization of copper, manganese and zinc of FYM in 4 year crop rotation. Part I. Advances of Agricultural Sciences Problem Issues 502: 267–275 (in Polish).
Rosada J., Przewocka M., 2016. Copper, lead and cadmium content in soils and plants cultivated in the vicinity of copper smelter “Głogów”. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Zielonogórskiego, Inżynieria Środowiska 163, 43: 107–118 (in Polish).
Sady W., Smoleń S., 2004. The effect of soil-fertilizer factors on the accumulation of heavy metals in plants. X Ogólnopolskie Sympozjum Naukowe: Efektywność stosowania nawozów w uprawach ogrodniczych. Wyd. Akademii Rolniczej w Poznaniu: 269–277.
Sękara A., Poniedziałek J., Ciura J., Jędrszczyk E., 2005. Zinc and copper accumulation and distribution in the tissues of nine crops: Implications for Phytoremediation. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 14, 6: 829–835.
Shure T., Macfie S.M., 2006. Cadmium and zinc accumulation in soybean: A threat to food safety? Science of the Total Environment 371: 63–73.
Spiak Z., 2000. Microelements in agriculture. Advances of Agricultural Sciences Problem Issues 471: 29–34 (in Polish).
Symanowicz B., Kalembasa S., Jaremko D., Niedbała M., 2015. Effect of nitrogen application and year on concentration of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd in herbage of Galega orientalis Lam. Plant Soil Environment 61, 1: 11–16.
Wysokiński A., 2013. The amount of nitrogen biologically reduced by yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) and its utilization by subsequent plant – winter rye (Secale cererale L.). Wyd. UPH w Siedlcach, Mongraph 126: ss.133 (in Polish).
Wyszkowska J., Borowik A., Kucharski M., Kucharski J., 2013. Effect of cadmium, copper and zinc on plants, soil microorganisms and soil enzymes. Journal of Elementology 18, 4: 769–796.