The Last Hundred Years of Land Use History in the Southern Part of Valdai Hills (European Russia): Reconstruction by Pollen and Historical Data

Open access

Abstract

The last one hundred years of land use history in the southern part of Valdai Hills (European Russia) were reconstructed on the base of high resolution pollen data from the peat monolith taken from the Central Forest State Reserve supplementing with historical records derived from maps of the General Land Survey of the 18th and 19th centuries and satellite images. According to the created age model provided by dating using radio-nuclides 210Pb and 137Cs, pollen data of the peat monolith allow us to reconstruct vegetation dynamics during the last one hundred years with high time resolution. The obtained data showed that, despite the location of the studied peatland in the center of the forest area and rather far away from possible croplands and hayfields, the pollen values of plants – anthropogenic indicators (Secale sereale, Centaurea cyanus, Plantago, Rumex, etc.) and micro-charcoal concentration are relatively high in the period since the beginning of the 20th century to the 1970s, especially in the peat horizon formed in the 1950s. In the late 1970s – the early 1980s when the pollen values of cereals gradually diminished in assemblages, the quantity of pollen of other anthropogenic indicators were also significantly reduced, which reflects the overall processes of the agriculture decline in the forest zone of the former USSR.

Axelsson, A.-L., Östlund, L., Hellberg, E., 2002. Changes in mixed deciduous forests of boreal Sweden 1866–1999 based on interpretation of historical records. Landscape Ecology 17, 403–418.

Behre, K.-E., 1981. The interpretation of antropogenic indicators in pollen diagrams. Pollen et Spores 23, 225–245.

Berlund, B.E., Persson, T., Emanuelsson, U., Persson, S., 1986. Pollen/vegetation relationships in grazed and mowed plant communities of south Sweden. In: Behre, K-E. (Ed.) Anthropogenic indicators in pollen diagrams, 37–51. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Beug, H-J., 2004. Leitfaden der Pollenbestimmung für Mitteleuropa und angrenzende Gebiete. 542 pp. Verlag Friedrich Pfeil, Munich.

Blinnikov, M.S., 2011. A Geography of Russia and Its Neighbors. Guilford Press, New York.

Borisenkov, E.P., Pasetski, V.M., 2002. Chronicle of unusual natural phenomena for 2.5 millennia. 536 pp. Gidrometeoisdat, St. Petersburg (in Russian).

Broström, A., Gaillard, M.-J., Ihse, M., Odgaard, B., 1998. Pollenlandscape relationships in modern analogues of ancient cultural landscapes in southern Sweden – a first step towards quantification of vegetation openness in the past. Vegetation History Archaeobotany 7, 189–201.

Clark, R.L., 1982 Point count estimation of charcoal in pollen preparations and thin sections of sediments. Pollen et Spores 24, 523–535.

Desherevskaya, O., Kurbatova, J., Olchev, A., 2010. Climatic conditions of the south part of Valday Hills, Russia, and their projected changes during the 21st century. Open Geography Journal 3, 73–79.

Dumin, S.V., 2010. Smolensk voivodeship as a part of Poland in 1618–1654. In: Fedorov, B.G. (Ed.) Smolensk gentry, 81–110. “Svitok”, Smolemsk (in Russian).

Finsinger, W., Tinner, W., 2005. Minimum count sums for charcoal-concentration estimates in pollen slides: reliability and potential errors. The Holocene 15, 293–297.

Florja, B.N. 1998. The state of orthodox christians of Smolensk region as a part of Poland (20th–40th years of XVII century). Revue des études slaves 70 (2), 333–345 (in Russian).

Frenzel, B., Rosch, L, Gläser, B., 1992. Evaluation of land surfaces cleared from forest by prehistoric man in early Neolithic times and the time of migrating German tribes. Paläoklimaforschung – Palaeo climate Research 8, 83–91. Fischer, Stuttgart.

Gaillard, M.-J., Sugita, S., Bunting, J., Dearing, J., Bittmann, F., 2008. Human impact on terrestrial ecosystems, pollen calibration and quantitative reconstruction of past land-cover. Vegetation History Archaeobotany 17, 415–418.

Gaillard, M.-J., Sugita, S., Mazier, F., 2010. Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks. Climate in the Past 6, 483–499.

Glaser, R., Riemann, D., 2009. A thousand-year record of temperature variations for Germany and Central Europe based on documentary data. Journal of Quaternary Science 24, 437–449.

Grimm, E.C. 1990. TILIA and TILIA*GRAPH.PC spreadsheet and graphics software for pollen data. INQUA, Working Group on Data-Handling Methods. Newsletter 4, 5–7.

Hansen, M.C., Potapov, P.V., Moore, R., 2013. High-resolution global maps of 21st century forest cover change. Science 342, 850–853.

Hicks, S., Birks, H.J.B., 1996. Numerical analysis of modern and fossil pollen spectra as a tool for elucidating the nature of fine-scale human activities in boreal areas. Vegetation History Archaeobotany 5, 257–272.

Hultberg, T., Gaillard, M.-J., Grundmann, B., Lindbladh, M., 2015. Reconstruction of past landscape openness using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) applied on three local pollen sites in a southern Swedish biodiversity hotspot. Vegetation History Archaeobotany 24, 253–266.

Ioffe, G., Nefedova, T., 2004. Marginal farmland in European Russia. Eurasian Geography and Economics 45, 45–59.

Josefsson, T., Ramqvist, P.H., Hörnberg, G., 2014. The history of early cereal cultivation in northernmost Fennoscandia as indicated by palynological research. Vegetation History Archaeobotany 23, 821–840.

Kalis, A.J., Merkt, J., Wunderlich, J., 2003. Environmental changes during the Holocene climatic optimum in central Europe – human impact and natural causes. Quaternary Science Reviews 22, 33–79.

Karimov, A.E., Nosova, M.B., 1999. Land use and its influence on the nature of the Central Forest Reserve (the end of 16th – the beginning of the 20th century). In: Smirnova O.V., Shaposhnikov, E.S. (Eds) Forest successions in protected areas of Russia and problems of biodiversity conservations, 299–310. Russian Botanical Society, St. Petersburg (in Russian).

Khitrov, D., Pakhunov, S., 2013. Provincial reform of 1775 in the Smolensk gubernia: how the system of administrative-territorial division was formed. Rodina 9, 80–83 (in Russian).

Kirleis, W., Klooß, S., Kroll, H., Müller, J., 2012. Crop growing and gathering in the northern German Neolithic: a review supplemented by new results. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 21 (3), 221–242.

Koff, T., Punning, J.-M., 2002. The last hundred years of land-use in Estonia as inferred from pollen records. Annales Botanici Fennici 39, 213–224.

Krom, M.M., 1995. Between Russia and Lithuania. Western Russian lands in the system of Lithuanian-Russian relationship at the end of XV – the first third of XVI centuries. 92 pp. Archeological center-press, Moscow (in Russian)

Kuemmerle, T., Kaplan, J.O., Prishchepov, A.V., Rylsky, I., Chaskovsky, O., Tikunov, V.S., Müller, D., 2015. Forest transitions in Eastern Europe and their effects on carbon budgets. Global Change Biology 21, 3049–3061.

Kusov, V.S. 2004. Lands of Moscow gubernia in the XVIII century. 400 pp. “Moscovia”, Moscow (in Russian).

Lerman, Z, Csaki, C., Feder, G., 2004. Evolving farm structures and land-use patterns in former socialist countries. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture 43, 309–335.

Matasov, V.M. 2016. Methodological aspects of the analysis of the land use structure in the Kasimov uezd at the end of the XVIII century. Geodesy and cartography 3, 59–64 (in Russian).

Mazier, F., Broström, A., Bragée, P., Fredh, D., Stenberg, L., Thiere, G., Sugita, S., Hammarlund, D., 2015. Two hundred years of landuse change in the South Swedish Uplands: comparison of historical map-based estimates with a pollen-based reconstruction using the landscape reconstruction algorithm. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 24, 555–570.

Minayeva, T.Yu., Trofimov, S.Ya., Dorofeyeva, E.I., Chichagova, O.A., Sirin, A.A., Glushkov, I.V., Mikhailov, N.D., Kromer, B., 2008. Carbon accumulation in soils of forest and bog ecosystems of southern Valdai in the Holocene. Biology Bulletin 35 (5), 524–532.

Minyaev, N.A., Konechnaya, G.Y., 1976. Flora of the Central Forest State Reserve. 104 pp. Nauka, Moscow (in Russian). Mitchell, F.J.G., 2005. How open were European primeval forests? Hypothesis testing using palaeoecological data. Journal of Ecology 93, 168–177.

Moore, P.D., Webb, J.A., Collinson, M.E., 1991. Pollen Analysis. 216 pp. Blackwell, Oxford.

Nielsen, A.B., Giesecke, T., Theuerkauf, M., 2012. Quantitative reconstructions of changes in regional openness in north-central Europe reveal new insights into old questions. Quaternary Science Reviews 47, 131–149.

Niinemets, E., Saarse, L., 2009. Holocene vegetation and land-use dynamics of south-eastern Estonia. Quaternary International 207, 104–116.

Novenko, E.Yu., Volkova, E.M., Nosova, M.B., Zuganova, I.S., 2009. Late Glacial and Holocene landscape dynamics in the southern taiga zone of East European Plain according to pollen and macrofossil records from the Central Forest State Reserve (Valdai Hills, Russia). Quaternary International 207, 93–103.

Olchev, A., Novenko, E., Popov, V., Pampura, T., Meili, M., 2017. Evidence of temperature and precipitation change over the past 100 years in a high-resolution pollen record from the boreal forest of Central European Russia. The Holocene 27, 740–751.

Payne, R.J., Malysheva, E., Tsyganov, A., Pampura, T., Novenko, E., Volkova, E., Babeshko, K., Mazei, Yu., 2016. A multi-proxy record of Holocene environmental change, peatland development and carbon accumulation from Staroselsky Moch peatland, Russia. The Holocene 26, 314–326.

Prishchepov, A.V., Radeloff, V.C., Baumann, M., Kuemmerle, T., Müller, D., 2012. Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe. Environment Research Letters 7: 24021.

Ralska-Jasiewiczowa, M., 1977. Impact of prehistoric man on natural vegetation recorded in pollen diagrams from different regions of Poland. Folia Quaternaria 49, 5–91.

Reille, M. 1992. Pollen et spores d’Europe et d’Afrique du Nord. 331 pp. Laboratoire de Botanique Historique et Palynologie, Marseille.

Rösch, M. 1992. Human impact as registered in the pollen record: some results from the western Lake Constance region, Southern Germany. Vegetation History Archaeobotany 1, 101109.

Saarse, L., Niinemets, E., Poska, A., Veski, S. 2010. Is there a relationship between crop farming and the Alnus decline in the eastern Baltic region? Vegetation History Archaeobotany 19, 17–28.

Schierhorn, F., Müller, D., Beringer, T., Prishchepov, A.V., Kuemmerle, T., Balmann, A., 2013. Post-Soviet cropland abandonment and carbon sequestration in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 27, 1175–1185.

Sieber, A., Kuemmerle, T., Prishchepov, A.V., Wendland K.J., Baumann M., Radeloff V.C., Baskin L.M., Hostert P., 2013. Landsat-based mapping of post-Soviet land-use change to assess the effectiveness of the Oksky and Mordovsky protected areas in European Russia. Remote Sensing of Environment 133, 38–51.

Soepboer, W., Lotter, A.F., 2009. Estimating past vegetation openness using pollen–vegetation relationships: A modelling approach. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 153, 102–107.

Stockmarr, J., 1971. Tablets with spores used in absolute pollen analysis. Pollen et Spores 13, 615–621.

Sugita, S., 2007. Theory of quantitative reconstruction of vegetation. I. Pollen from large sites REVEALS regional vegetation. The Holocene 17, 229–241.

Sugita, S., Gaillard, M.J., Broström, A., 1999. Landscape openness and pollen records: A simulation approach. The Holocene 9, 409–421.

Taavitsainen, J.-P., Simola, H., Gronlund, E., 1998. Cultivation history beyond the periphery: early agriculture in the North European boreal forest. Journal of World Prehistory 12, 199–253.

Veski, S., Koppel, K., Poska, A., 2005. Integrated palaeoecological and historical data in the service of fine-resolution land use and ecological change assessment during the last 1000 years in Rõuge, southern Estonia: Land use and ecological change assessment in southern Estonia. Journal of Biogeography 32, 1473–1488.

Vorren, K.-D., 1986. The impact of early agriculture on the vegetation of Nothern Norway. A discussion of antropogenic indicators in pollen diagrams. In: Behre, K.-E. (Ed.) Anthropogenic indicators in pollen diagrams, 1–18. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Vuorela, I., 1986. Palynological and historical evidence of slash-andburn cultivation in South Finland. In: Behre, K.-E. (Ed.) Anthropogenic indicators in pollen diagrams, 53–64. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Vuorela, I., Saarnisto, M., Lempiäinen, T., Taavitsainen, J.P., 2001. Stone Age to recent land-use history at Pegrama, northern Lake Onega, Russian Karelia. Vegetation History Archaeobotany 10, 121–138.

Zernitskaya, V., Mikhailov, N., 2009. Evidence of early farming in the Holocene pollen spectra of Belarus. Quaternary International 203, 91–104.

Studia Quaternaria

The Journal of Institute of Geological Sciences and Committee for Quaternary Research of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


SCImago Journal Rank (SJR): 0.200
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP): 0.312

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 173 130 12
PDF Downloads 70 66 10