Standard Language Ideology and Its Influence on Lithuanian Migrants. Samogitians' Attitudes Towards Their Language Variety

Open access

Summary

The study tries to bridge the gap between research on how the Lithuanian language and its varieties are spoken and maintained by migrants and on how the standard language ideology affects the speakers of regional varieties in Lithuania. The paper investigates Lithuanian Samogitian migrants’ attitudes towards their regional variety, the main factors that might influence their beliefs and whether the standard language ideology is one of these factors. The in-depth analysis of 10 audio-recorded and coded interview responses has shown that in migration, similarly as in Lithuania, people’s attitudes towards Samogitian and the usage of it are governed by the three main factors, namely education, Soviet language policy and the linguistic pressure from society. Even though migrants do not feel intense pressure to speak the “right” language and feel much freer to use the variety of their choice when talking to other migrants, they still believe that it is common sense to use the standard in official gatherings, for public speeches or for official events.

Agheyisi, R. & Fishman, J. A. (1970). Language Attitude Studies: A Brief Survey of Methodological Approaches. Anthropological Linguistics, 12, 137-157.

Armstrong, N., & Mackenzie, I. (2013). Standardization, Ideology and Linguistics. Hampshire: Macmillan.

Baker, C. (1992). Attitudes and Languages. London: Multilingual Matters. Bagdonavičienė, Vida et al. (2013). Integruotas modelis, skirtas užsienyje gyvenantiems bei iš užsienio atvykusių lietuvių ir kitų šalių vaikų lituanistiniam ugdymui bei su jais dirbančių pedagogų ir kitų specialistų kvalifikacijos tobulinimui. Lituanistinis modelis. Kaunas.

Brown, K. (Ed.) (2006). Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 6. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Butrimas, A. (2001). Žemaičių istorijos ir kultūros ypatumai. Žemaičių žemė, 1, 2-4.

Garrett, P. (2010). Attitudes to Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gawronski, B. & Keith P. (2010). A History of Implicit Social Cognition: Where Is It Coming From? Where Is It Now? Where Is It Going? In B. Gawronski & P. Keith (Eds.). Handbook of implicit social cognition: Measurement, Theory, and Applications. New York: Guilford Press.

Geel, M. & Vedder, P. (2009). The Role of Family Obligations and School Adjustment in Explaining the Immigrant Paradox. Empirical Research, 40, 187-196.

Giles, Howard, & Coupland, N. (1991). Language: contexts and consequences. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Girdenis, A. (1981). Tarmės ir mokykla. Mūsų kalba, 3, 12-16.

Heath, S. B. (1983). Ways with Words. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Ivinskis, A. (2004). Žemaičių klausimas ir nūdienos politiniai vėjai. Naujasis židinys - Aidai, 1, 32-36.

Kristiansen, T. (2004). Social Meaning and Norm-ideals for Speech in a Danish Community. Jaworski, Coupland (eds.) Sociolinguistics. A Reader and a Course book. 100-162.

Kristiansen, T. (2009). The macro-level social meanings of late-modern Danish accents. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia, 41, p. 167-192.

Kristiansen, T. (2010). Investigating language in space: Experimental techniques. In: A. Peter and E. S. Jürgen (Eds.). Language and Space. An International Handbook of Linguistic Variation. Volume 1: Theories and Methods. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 528-549.

Kristiansen, T. (2011) Attitudes, ideology and awareness. In: R. Wodak, B. Johnstone & P. Kerswill (Eds.). The SAGE handbook of sociolinguistics, pp. 265-279.

Kulevičius, S. (2012) “Žemaičių tapatumo vingiai XXIa.: savo praeities ir paveldo paieškos”. Acta humanitarica universitatis Saulencis, 14, 224-245.

Kubiliūtė, G. (2011). Žemaičių užsispyrimas dėl tautybės neblėsta. 15 min, 26, p. 3.

Maass, A., Salvi, D., Arcuri, L. & Semin, G. (1989). Language use in intergroup contexts: The linguistic intergroup bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57/6, 981-993.

Milroy, J., & Milroy, L. (1999). Authority in Language. Investigating Standard English. London: Routledge.

Milroy, J. (2001). Language Ideologies and the Consequences of Standardization. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 4, 530-555.

Milroy, J. (2006). The Ideology of the Standard Language. In C. Llamas, L. Mullany & P. Stockwell (Eds.). The Routledge Companion to Sociolinguistics, p. 133-139. London: Taylor & Francis Group.

Paužienė, E. (2011). Metodinė priemonė „atvira visuomenė - lietuvos ateities sąlyga” skirta darbui pagal mentorystės veiklų mokymo programą. Europos fondo trečiųjų šalių piliečių integracijai Lietuvoje metinė (2010 m.) programa.

Raila, E., & Subačius P. (2012). Language Standardization and Forms of Ideological Education. Lituanus. The Lithuanian Quarterly Journal of Arts and Sciences, 58, 18-30.

Ramonienė, M. (2006). Nuostatos dėl bendrinės kalbos ir tarmės: Joniškėlio atvejis. Kalbos kultūra, 79, 137-148.

Ramonienė, M. (2013). Emigrantų kalba. Vilniaus universitetas.

Rumsey, A. (1990). Wording, Meaning, and Linguistic Ideology. American Anthropologist. 92(2), 346-361.

Saville-Troike, M. (1990). The Ethnography of Communication. An Introduction. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

SIL Intenational. 2016. ISO 639 Code Tables. Retrieved from http://www-01.sil.org/iso639-3/codes.asp.

Silverstein, M. (1979). Language Structure and Linguistic Ideology. In P. Clyne, W. Hanks & C. Hofbauer (eds.). The Elements: A parasession on Linguistic Elements and Levels, p. 193-247. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

Tarptautinė migracijos organizacija (2017). Lietuvių bendruomenės užsienyje. Retrieved from https://renkuosilietuva.lt/lietuviu-bendruomenesuzsienyje/.

Vaicekauskienė, L. (2013). Lietuvių kalba: idealai, ideologijos ir tapatybės lūžiai, 2010-2013, projekto baigiamoji ataskaita. Valstybinės kalbos politikos 2009-2013 m. gairės (2008). Valstybinė lietuvių kalbos komisija. Vilnius.

Zinkevičius, Z. (1994). Lietuvių kalbos dialektologija. Vilnius: Šviesa.

Woolard, K. (1998) “Introduction: Language ideology as a field of inquiry”. In S. Bambi, K. Woolard & P. Kroskrity (eds.). Language ideologies: Practice and theory, p. 3-47. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sustainable Multilingualism

Darnioji daugiakalbyste

Journal Information

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 355 188 9
PDF Downloads 518 430 10