The Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety and Their Lifestyle Determinants in a Large Sample Of Iranian Adults: Results From A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study

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Abstract

Association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in Middle Eastern countries. Th is study aimed to examine the prevalence of two common mental health problems, i.e., depression and anxiety, and their lifestyle determinants in a large sample of Iranian population.

This study was conducted within the framework of SEPAHAN population based cross-sectional study (N=4763(. The General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ) was used to assess physical activity and the Iranian-validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to screen for anxiety and depression. Logistic regression was used as the main statistical method for data analysis by SPSS version 16.0. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The risk of anxiety and depression was 2.5 (OR=2.56,95% CI: 1.97-3.33) and 2.21(1.83-2.67) times higher in women than men, respectively. With every one-year increase in the age, the risk of anxiety decreased by 2% (OR=0.98,95% CI:0.97-0.99). Individuals with higher education had 56% lower risk of anxiety (OR=0.44,95% CI: 0.36-0.55) and 46% depression (OR=0.54,95% CI: 0.46-0.64) than the undergraduate group, and the risk of depression in the inactive (less than one hour of activity per week) group was 27% higher than the active group (OR=1.27,95% CI: 1.06-1.51). The risk of anxiety in the non-smoker group was 65% (OR=0.35,95% CI: 0.20-0.59) and depression was 64% lower than among smokers (OR=0.34,95% CI:0 .22-0.53). In the ex-smoker group, the risk of anxiety was 60% (OR=0.40,95% CI:0.19-0.85) and depression was 59% lower than for the smoker group (OR=0.41,95% CI: 0.24-0.73).

This current study’s results demonstrated significant associations between unhealthy lifestyle factors and increased risk of anxiety and depression. Hence, special attention must be paid to preventive intervention programmes aiming to enhance healthy lifestyle among at-risk populations.

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Serbian Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research

The Journal of Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac

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