In this article, we review the recent findings concerning weight gain, diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular side effects in patients receiving olanzapine. It will consider the OLZ is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular events, and knowledge of these risks is crucial for further monitoring of patients with OLZ-treatment. Although it is one of the most commonly prescribed and effective AATPs, olanzapine causes the most weight gain and metabolic impairments in humans. As noted with glucose abnormalities and antipsychotics, olanzapine has the greatest propensity for causing proatherogenic hyperlipidemia. The mechanism of dyslipidemia with OLZ is poorly understood, but OLZ has been shown to increase lipogenesis, reduce lipolysis, and enhance the antilipolytic effects of insulin in adipocytes. Olanzapine can induce cardiomyopathy in selected patients.
Taken together, all mentioned data indicate that interventions aimed at the amelioration of obesity and cardiovascular illness need to be as multipronged and complex as the contributing psychosocial, behavioural, and biological factors that make obesity and cardiovascular illness more likely in patients with severe mental illness, including schizophrenia.
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