Lues maligna is a rare ulcerative form of secondary syphilis. This clinical entity is predominantly found in patients living with HIV or AIDS. We report a case of a 32-year-old homosexual man with diffuse non-pruritic, papular skin lesions, ulcerated nodules and plaques disseminated on the face, trunk and extremities. The rash was followed by fever, malaise and joint pains. Serological tests for syphilis were positive. The patient was treated with intramuscular penicillin and the lesions resolved completely. Lues maligna was an initial presentation of underlying HIV infection. The HIV seropositivity was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Due to the increased number of syphilis cases and frequent HIV co-infection in Serbia, dermatologists must be able to recognize this condition based on clinical characteristics and risk factors and to diagnose and treat it promptly.
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