Cutaneous Manifestations in HIV Infected Libyan Patients

Open access


Cutaneous manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease may result from HIV infection itself, or from opportunistic disorders secondary to the declined immunocompetence due to the disease. A total of 220 HIV positive patients, treated in the Benghazi Center of Infectious Diseases and Immunology over a period of 14 years (January 2003 to November 2016), were included in a retrospective study. The patients' age ranged from 7 to 46 years. The study was conducted by reviewing the patients' records using the management information system (MIS). Statistical analysis of the data was carried out by the t-test and Chi square test. Among the studied patients, 119 (54.1%) were males and 101 (45.9%) were females, and most of them (78.6%) were 10 – 19 years of age. The predominant mode of transmission was parenteral transmission, in 95% of patients, and positive family history was observed in 12% of patients. Among the total number of visits to dermatologists, 93% of patients had a single disease. Of the total number of skin diseases diagnosed during the visits, parasitic infestations were seen in 92 patients (21.0%), eczematous and related disorders in 78 patients (17.8%), viral infections in 71 patients (16.2%), bacterial infections in 41 patients (9.3%), and fungal infections in 35 patients (7.9%). Dermatophyte infections were the most common fungal infections recorded in 19 patients (4.3%), followed by Candida infection in 11 patients (2.5%). Warts were found in 5.9% of viral infections, followed by herpes zoster (4.1%). HIV positive patients should be examined for skin disorders, because early diagnosis and management of such problems improves the quality of life in these patients.

1. Sepkowitz KA. AIDS-the first 20 years. N Engl J Med.2001;344(23):1764–72.

2. Weiss RA. How does HIV cause AIDS? Science.1993;260(5112):1273–9.

3. Cecil RS, Wyngaarden JB, Smith LH. Textbook ofmedicine. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1988. p. 1523,1799.

4. Mgonda YM, Urassa WK, Lyamuya EF, Pallangyo KJ, Mbena EC. The clinical and immunological characteristics of pruritic papular eruption of HIV disease: experience from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Tanzania Medical Journal. 2001;16:1-4.

5. Cedeno-Laurent F, Gómez-Flores M, Mendez N,Ancer-Rodríguez J, Bryant JL, Gaspari AA, et al. New insights into HIV-1-primary skin disorders. J Int AIDS Soc. 2011;14:5.

6. Yazdanpanah Y, Chêne G, Losina E, Goldie SJ, Merchadou LD, Alfandari S, et al. Incidence of primaryopportunistic infections in two human immunodeficiency virus-infected French clinical cohorts. Int JEpidemiol. 2001;30(4):864-71.

7. Stein DS, Korvick JA, Vermund SH. CD4+ lymphocyte cell enumeration for prediction of clinicalcourse of human immunodeficiency virus disease:a review. J Infect Dis. 1992;165(2):352-63.

8. Pitche P, Tchangaï-Walla K, Napo-Koura G, Mijiyawa M, Agbere A, Tatagan A. Prevalence of skin manifestations in AIDS patients in the Lome-Tkom University Hospital (Togo). Sante. 1995;5(6):349-52.

9. Muhammad B, Eligius L, Mugusi F, Aris E, Chale S,Magao P, et al. The prevalence and pattern of skin diseases in relation to CD4 counts among HIV-infected police officers in Dar es Salaam. Trop Doct. 2003;33(1):44-8.

10.Mbuagbaw J, Eyong I, Alemnji G, Mpoudi N, Same-Ekobo A. Patterns of skin manifestations and their relationships with CD4 counts among HIV/AIDS patients in Cameroon. Int J Dermatol. 2006;45(3):280-4.

11.Hira SK, Wadhawan D, Kamanga J, Kavindele D,Macuacua R, Patil PS, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus in Lusaka, Zambia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;19(3):451-7.

12.Rad F, Ghaderi E, Moradi G, Mafakheri L. The relationship between skin manifestations and CD4 counts among HIV positive patients. Pak J Med Sci. 2008;24(1):114-7.

13. Samet JH, Muz P, Cabral P, Jhamb K, Suwanchinda A, Freedberg KA. Dermatological manifestations in HIV-infected patients. A primary care perspective. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999;74(7):658–60.

14. Spira R, Mignard M, Doutre MS, Morlat P, Dabis F. Prevalence of cutaneous disorders in a population of HIV-infected patients. Southwestern France, 1996. Groupe d'Epidemiologie Clinique du SIDA en Aquitaine. Arch Dermatol. 1998;134(10):1208–12.

15. Singh H, Singh P, Tiwari P, Dey V, Dulhani N, Singh A. Dermatological manifestations in HIV-infected patients at a tertiary care hospital in a tribal (Bastar) region of Chhattsgarh, India. Indian J Dermatol 2009;54(4):338-41.

16. Bravo IM, Correnti M, Escalona L, Perrone M, Brito A, Tovar V, et al. Prevalence of oral lesions in HIV patients related to CD4 cell count and viral load in a Venezuelan population. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2006;11(1):E33-9.

17. Samet JH, Muz P, Cabral P, Jhamb K, Suwanchinda A, Freedberg KA. Dermatologic manifestations in HIV-infected patients: a primary care perspective. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999;74(7):658-60. Same as ref. 13

18. Spira R, Mignard M, Doutre MS, Morlat P, Dabis F. Prevalence of cutaneous disorders in a population of HIV-infected patients. Southwestern France, 1996. Groupe d'Epidemiologie Clinique du SIDA en Aquitaine. Arch Dermatol. 1998;134(10):1290-2. Same as ref 14.

19. Eichmann A. Skin manifestations in patients with HIV infection. Z Hautkr. 1990;65(7):640-4.

20. Sivayathorn A, Srihra B, Leesanguankul W. Prevalence of skin disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Bangkok, Thailand. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1995;24(4):528-33.

21.Wiwanitkit V. Prevalence of dermatological disordersin Thai HIV-infected patients correlated with different CD4 lymphocyte count statuses: a note on 120 cases. Int J Dermatol. 2004;43(4):265-8.

Serbian Journal of Dermatology and Venereology

The Journal of Serbian Association of Dermatovenereologists (SAD)

Journal Information


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 175 175 20
PDF Downloads 89 89 11