The productivity potential of provenances and families of Pinus tecunumanii were determined across a range of environments in four orthogonal field trials in Zimbabwe. Provenances of P. tecunumanii from altitudes above 1500 m (High Elevation) in natural stands in Mexico and Central America were significantly superior (P < 0.05) to provenances from altitudes below 1500 m (Low Elevation) when planted in Zimbabwe in eightyear mean individual tree volume (1729.2 versus 1588.6 dm3) at 1760 m a.s.l.; were not significantly different (1163.1 versus 1143.9 dm3) at 1450 m a.s.l.; but the latter was significantly superior (1756.4 versus 1468.6 dm3) at 1050 m a.s.l., and (720.7 versus 531.5 dm3) at 780 m a.s.l. The most productive provenances were Juquila (26.1 m3ha-1yr-1) at 1760 m, Yucul (17.3 m3ha-1yr-1) at 1450 m, San Francisco (24.9 m3ha-1yr-1) at 1050 m and Villa Santa (11.1 m3ha-1yr-1) at 780 m a.s.l. Improved P. patula was significantly superior to P. tecunumanii at 1760 m a.s.l but the differences were nonsignificant at 1450 m a.s.l. In the warm lower altitude sites, P. tecunumanii was not significantly different from improved P. oocarpa, the commonly planted species, although some provenances of P. tecunumanii were significantly superior by as much as 31%. The top 10 ranked families of the high elevation P. tecunumanii had an eight-year volume advantage of 1% and 23% over P. patula at Stapleford and Cashel, and 40% and 34% over P. oocarpa at Gungunyana and Maswera respectively. Genotype-environment interaction was significant by elevation group, provenance and family level. The interaction at the family level was however largely contributed by families from the high elevation P. tecunumanii. Opportunities exist for immediate deployment of seed of selected provenances of P. tecunumanii in medium and low altitude areas to improve plantation productivity. There is however, no immediate yield advantage of using P. tecunumanii seed in high potential environments currently planted to P. patula. Breeding and selection could also bring about the planting of P. tecunumanii in the higher altitudes in the near future.
BARNES, R. D. (1977): Population improvement through selection and hybridization in Pinus patula, P. elliottii and P. taeda in southern Africa. In: Third World Consultation on Forest Tree Breeding. Canberra, Australia, 21-26 March 1977. CSIRO. FO-FTB-77 3/3: 489-505.
BARNES, R. D. and G. L. GIBSON (1986): A method to assess stem straightness in tropical pines. Commonwealth Forestry Review 65: 168-171.
BIRKS, J. S. and R. D. BARNES (1990): Provenance variation in Pinus caribaea, P. oocarpa and P. patula ssp. tecunumanii. Tropical Forestry Papers. No. 21, 40 pp.
CROCKFORD, K. J., BIRKS, J. S. and R. D. BARNES (1988): Family within provenance trials of Pinus caribaea, P. oocarpa and P. patula ssp. tecunumanii: Early results and implication for breeding strategy. In: GIBSON, G. L., GRIFFIN, A. R. and MATHESON, A. C. Eds. Populations structure and genetic improvement strategies in clonal and seedling forestry. Proceedings of IUFRO conference, Pattaya, Thailand. November 1988. pp 176-183.
CROCKFORD, K. J., A. J. DUNSDON, W. B. H. BAYLIS, J. S. BIRKS and R. D. BARNES (1990): Evaluation of Tropical Pine provenance and progeny tests. ODA Research Scheme R.4346. Oxford Forestry Institute. University of Oxford. Final Report. 136pp.
DVORAK, W. S. (1986): Provenance/progeny testing of Pinus tecunumanii. In: Proc. of a joint Meeting of Working Parties on Breeding Theory, Progeny Testing and Seed Orchards. Williamsburg, USA. pp 299-309.
DVORAK, W. S., BALOCCHI, C. E. and R. H. RAYMOND (1989): Performance and Stability of Provenances and Families of P. tecunumanii in the tropics and subtropics. pp 187-196. In: Proceedings of an IUFRO conference on Breeding Tropical Trees: Population Structure and Genetic Improvement Strategies in Clonal and seedling Forestry. Pattaya, Thailand, November, 1988.
DVORAK, W. S and R. H. RAYMOND (1991): The taxonomic status of closely related cone pines in Mexico and Central America. New Forests 4: 291-307.
DVORAK, W. S. and E. A. SHAW (1992): Five year growth results for growth and stem form of Pinus tecunumanii. In Brazil, Colombia and South Africa. CAMCORE bulletin on Tropical Forestry 10. College of forest Resources. North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA. 22p.
DVORAK, W. S. and K. D. ROSS (1994): Three-year growth and stability of Honduran provenances and families of Pinus tecunumanii. Forest Ecology and Management 63: 1-11.
DVORAK, W. S., G. R. HODGE, E. A. GUTIERREZ, F. S. MALAN and T. K. STANGER (2000a): Pinus tecunumanii. pp 188-209. In: Conservation & Testing of Tropical & Subtropical Forest Tree Species by the CAMCORE Cooperative, College of Natural Resources, NCSU, Raleigh, NC. USA.
DVORAK, W. S., J. E. KIETZKA, T. K. STANGER and M. MAPULA (2000b): Pinus herrerae. pp 75-84. In: Conservation & Testing of Tropical & Subtropical Forest Tree Species by the CAMCORE Cooperative, College of Natural Resources, NCSU, Raleigh, NC. USA.
DVORAK, W. S., E. KIETZKA, G. R. HODGE, A. NEL, G. A. DOS SANTOS and C. GANTZ (2007): Assessing the potential of Pinus herrerae as a plantation species for the subtropics. Forest Ecology and Management Forest Ecology 242: 598-605.
DVORAK, W. S., K. M. POTTER, V. D. HIPKINS and G. R. HODGE (2009): Genetic diversity and gene exchange in Pinus oocarpa, a Mesoamerican pine with resistance to the pitch canker fungus (Fusarium circinatum). International Journal of Plant Sciences 170: 609-626.
DVORAK, W. S., (2008): Estamos más cerca de entender la ascendencia de las poblaciones de la “variante patula” en la Sierra Madre del sur, México? Foresta Veracruzana 10(1): 59-66.
EGUILUZ-PIEDRA, T. (1986): Taxonomic relationships of Pinus tecunumanii from Guatemala. Commonwealth Forestry Review 65: 303-313.
FURMAN, B. J., D. GRATTAPAGLIA, W. S. DVORAK and D. M. O’MALLEY (1997): Analysis of genetic relationships of Central American and Mexican pines using RAPD markers that distinguish species. Molecular Ecology 6: 321-331.
GRATTAPAGLIA, D., D. M. O’MALLEY and W. S. DVORAK (1993): Phylogenetic analysis of Central American and Mexican pines using RAPD markers as bulked DNA samples. pp 468-473. In: Proc. IUFRO S2.02.08 Conference on Breeding Tropical Trees, edited by C. C. LAMBETH and W. S. DVORAK. Cartagena and Cali, Colombia. 9-18 October 1992.
HODGE, G. R. and W. S. DVORAK (1999): Genetic Parameters and Provenance Variation in Pinus tecunumanii in 78 International Trials. Forest Genetics 6: 157-180.
MORRIS, A. R. (1988): The early growth of Pinus oocarpa and Pinus patula ssp. tecunumanii provenances in the Usutu Forest, Swaziland. pp 377-378. In: Population structure and genetic improvement strategies in clonal and seedling forestry. Proceedings of IUFRO conference, Pattaya, Thailand, edited by G. L. GIBSON, A. R.
GRIFFIN, and A. C. MATHESON. November 1988. MOURA, V. P. G. and W. S. DVORAK (1998): Provenance and family performance of Pinus tecunumanii at 12 years of age in the Cerrado region of Brazil. Forest Genetics 5: 137-145.
MURILLO, O. and W. S. DVORAK (1988): Stability of Pinus oocarpa provenances across ten environments. pp 379-380. In: Population structure and genetic improvement strategies in clonal and seedling forestry. Proceedings of IUFRO conference, Pattaya, Thailand, edited by G. L. GIBSON, A. R. GRIFFIN, and A. C. MATHESON. November 1988.
NYOKA, B. I. and R. D. BARNES (1995): Genetic parameters and provenance productivity of Pinus oocarpa and Pinus patula ssp. tecunumanii. South African Forestry Journal 173: 1-7.
SAS INSTITUTE INC. (1998): SAS/STAT® User’s Guide, Release 6.12 Edition. Cary, NC, USA. SAS Institute, Inc.
SQUILLACE, A. E. and J. P. PERRY JR. (1992): Classification of Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. oocarpa, P. caribaea var. hondurensis and related taxonomic entities. Research Paper SE-285. Asheville, NC: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest experiment Station, 23 pp.
STYLES, B. T. and P. S. MCCARTER (1988): The botany, ecology, distribution and conservation status of Pinus patula ssp. tecunumanii in the Republic of Honduras. Ceiba 29: 3-30.
WRIGHT, J. A. and L. OSORIO (1992): Results of provenance and family within provenance trials of Pinus tecunumanii in Colombia. Forest Ecology and Management 55: 107-116.
WRIGHT, J. A., G. L. GIBSON and R. D. BARNES (1992): Variation in stem volume and wood density in provenances of Pinus oocarpa and P. patula ssp. tecunumanii at Nzoia, Kenya. Commonwealth Forestry Review 71: 203-206.
ZAMUDIO, F. (1992): Age-related variation in growth characteristics for families of Pinus tecunumanii in South America. MSc Thesis, College of Forest Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA. 62p.