A young provenance/progeny trial of spotted gums, which are major hardwood plantation species in subtropical eastern Australia, was studied for growth, form, and damage from Quambalaria shoot blight. The trial contained a wide range of genotypes, mainly of Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata, with between one and 21 families per provenance. Genetic parameters were calculated from 23 provenances with four or more families. Provenances superior for growth included four well-represented C. citriodora subsp. variegata provenances, all from south-east Queensland, which also had a high proportion of superior families. Overall, Queensland provenances had significantly higher mean diameter and height than those from New South Wales (NSW), although there were several superior NSW families. Provenances superior for growth also displayed good straightness and relatively fine branching. Relatively low Quambalaria shoot blight damage was recorded for four Queensland provenances and one coastal NSW provenance, which all had high proportions of families with low damage. Provenances that were putative intergrades between C. citriodora subsp. variegata and C. maculata tended to have high damage levels. However, some mediocre provenances contained superior families potentially useful for breeding. Regressions of Quambalaria damage index (QDI) on latitude, and mean height growth on QDI, were highly significant and moderately strong (0.51 and 0.58, respectively), indicating increasing damage in more southern material, and a retarding effect (although not striking) of damage on growth. Individual heritability estimates were low (zero to 0.14) for growth and form, and moderate for QDI (0.31). The genetic correlations for QDI with growth traits were strong and negative (-0.77 and -0.88), supporting a strategy of selecting vigorous trees for breeding programs from provenances and families superior for these traits.
BERTUS, A. L. and J. WALKER (1974): Ramularia on Eucalyptus and Angophora. Australasian Plant Pathology Society Newsletter 3: 3.
BOLAND, D. J., M. I. H. BROOKER, G. M. CHIPPENDALE, N. HALL, B. P. M. HYLAND, R. D. JOHNSTON, D. A. KLEINIG and J. D. TURNER (1984): Forest Trees of Australia. Nelson/CSIRO. 687 pp.
BOOTLE, K. R. (1983): Wood in Australia - Types, properties and uses. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Sydney.
CALLISTER, A., D. BUSH, S. COLLINS and W. DAVIS (2008): Prospects for genetic improvement of Eucalyptus cladocalyx in Western Australia. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 38(1): 211-226.
CARNEGIE, A. J. (2007a): Forest health condition in New South Wales, Australia, 1996-2005. I. Fungi recorded in eucalypt plantations during forest health surveys. Australasian Plant Pathology 36, 213-224.
CARNEGIE, A. J. (2007b): Forest health condition in New South Wales, Australia, 1996-2005. II. Fungal damage recorded in eucalypt plantations during forest health surveys and their management. Australasian Plant Pathology 36, 225-239.
CARNEGIE, A. J., P. J. KEANE, P. K. ADES and I. W. SMITH (1994): Variation in susceptibility of Eucalyptus globulus provenances to Mycosphaerella leaf disease. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24: 1751-1757.
CARNEGIE, A. J. and P. K. KEANE (2003): Variation in severity of target spot, caused by Aulographina eucalypti, in a eucalypt species and provenance trial in Victoria. Australasian Plant Pathology 32: 393-402.
CARNEGIE, A. J., I. G. JOHNSON and M. HENSON (2004): Variation among families and provenances of blackbutt (Eucalyptus pilularis) in early growth and susceptibility to damage from leaf spot fungi. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34, 2313-2326.
CARNEGIE, A. J. and P. K. ADES (2005): Variation in Eucalyptus globulus in susceptibility of adult foliage to leaf diseases caused by species of Mycosphaerella. Silvae Genetica 54, 174-184.
DICKINSON, G. R., D. J. LEE and J. R. HUTH (2004):. Early plantation growth and tolerance to Quambalaria Shoot Blight of provenances of three spotted gum taxa on a range of sites in Queensland. Australian Forestry 67(2): 122-130.
DUNGEY, H. S., B. M. POTTS, A. J. CARNEGIE and P. K. ADES (1997): Mycosphaerella leaf diseases: Genetic variation in damage to Eucalyptus nitens, E. globulus and their F1 hybrid. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27: 750-759.
ELDRIDGE, K. G. (1973): Minimum standards for evaluating progeny trials of Pinus radiata. Proc IUFRO Meeting on Tropical Provenance and Progeny Research and International Cooperation, Nairobi, Kenya, pp 477-480.
ELDRIDGE, K., J. DAVIDSON, C. HARWOOD and G. VAN WYK (1994): Eucalypt Domestication and Breeding. Oxford Scientific Publications. 288 pp.
GAVRAN, M. and M. PARSONS (2008): National Plantation Inventory 2008 Update. National Forest Inventory, Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.
GILMOUR, A. R., B. J. GOGEL, B. R. CULLIS, S. J. WELHAM and R. THOMPSON (2002): ASReml User Guide Release 1.0. VSN International Ltd, Hemel Hempstead, HP1 1ES, UK.
HAMMER, Ø., D. A. T. HARPER and P. D. RYAN (2001): PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4(1). 9 pp.
HILL, K. D. and L. A. S. JOHNSON (1995): Systematic studies in the eucalypts. 7. A revision of the bloodwoods, genus Corymbia (Myrtaceae). Telopea 6: 185-504.
HOULDER, D., M. HUTCHINSON, H. NIX and J. MCMAHON (2001): ANUCLIM Version 5.1 Users Guide.
JOHNSON, I. G. and R. J. ARNOLD (2000): Eucalyptus dunnii provenance-family trials in Northern New South Wales - age three-year assessment. State Forests of NSW Research Paper No. 37.
LEE, D. (2007): Achievements in forest tree genetic improvement in Australia and New Zealand 2: Development of Corymbia species and hybrids for plantations in eastern Australia. Australian Forestry 70, 11-16.
MAHMOOD, K., N. E. MARCAR, M. H. NAQVI, R. J. ARNOLD, D. F. CRAWFORD, S. IQBAL and K. M. AKEN (2003): Genetic variation in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Denh. for growth and stem straightness in a provenance-family trial on saltland in Pakistan. Forest Ecology and Management 176, 405-416.
MCDONALD, M.W. and A. R. BEAN (2000): Note: A new classification in Corymbia ‘section Politaria’: C. citriodora subsp. variegata (Myrtaceae). Austrobaileya 5(4): 735-736.
NICHOLS, J. D., G. R. B. SMITH, K. GLENCROSS and J. GRANT (2008): Subtropical Eucalypt Plantations in Australia: a new opportunity and challenge. pp 96-101 in Proceedings. Presented at Australian Forest Growers Conference, Albury, NSW, Australia, 20-22 October 2008.
NIKLES, D. G., D. J. LEE, K. J. ROBSON, P. C. POMROY and S. W. WALKER (2000): Progress on species selection trials and genetic improvement for hardwoods for commercial plantings in Queensland. In: SNELL, A. and VISE S. (Eds) Opportunities for the New Millennium. Proc. Australian Forest Growers Conference, Cairns, Aust., Sept 2000, pp. 23-31.
OLD, K. M., (1990): Diseases caused by fungi. In: Cremer, K. W., ed. Trees for Rural Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne.
PEGG, G. S., C. O’DWYER, A. J. CARNEGIE, T. I. BURGESS, M. J. WINGFIELD and A. DRENTH (2008): Quambalaria species associated with plantation and native eucalypts in Australia. Plant Pathology 57: 702-714.
PEGG, G. S., A. J. CARNEGIE, M. J. WINGFIELD and A. DRENTH (2009): Quambalaria spp.: increasing threats to eucalypt plantations in Australia. Southern Forests 71 (2): 111-114.
PRYOR, L. D. and L. A. S. JOHNSON (1971): A classification of the eucalypts. Australian National University Press: Canberra.
SAS INSTITUTE INC. (1990): SAS® Procedures Guide, Version 6, Third Edition, Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc. 705 pp.
SAS INSTITUTE INC. (1996): SAS/STAT® Software: Changes and Enhancements through Release 6.11, Cary, NC. 1104 pp.
SELF, N. M., E. A. B. AITKEN and M. D. DALE (2002): Susceptibility of provenances of spotted gums to Ramularia shoot blight. New Zealand Plant Protection 55: 68-72.
SIMPSON, J. A. (2000): Quambalaria, a new genus of eucalypt pathogens. Australasian Mycologist 19, 57-62.
SIMPSON, J. A., C. STONE and R. ELDRIDGE (1997): Eucalypt plantation pests and diseases - crop loss study. Forest Research and Development Div., State Forests of NSW Research Paper No. 35. 33 pp plus appendices.
STONE, C., J. A. SIMPSON and R. GITTENS (1998): Differential impact of insect herbivores and their fungal pathogens on the Eucalyptus Subgenera Symphyomyrtus and Monocalyptus and the Genus Corymbia. Australian Journal of Botany 46, 723-734.
STONE, C., M. MATSUKI and A. J. CARNEGIE (2003): Pest and disease assessment in young eucalypt plantations: field manual for using the Crown Damage Index, ed. Parsons, M. National Forest Inventory, Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.
WALKER, J. and A. L. BERTUS (1971): Shoot blight of Eucalyptus spp. caused by an undescribed species of Quambalaria. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of NSW 96, 2108-2117.
WILLIAMS, E. R. and A. C. MATHESON (1994): Experimental Design and Analysis for Use in Tree Improvement. CSIRO Publishing.