Genetic Variation and Correlations between Growth and Wood Density of Calycophyllum spruceanum at an Early Age in the Peruvian Amazon

Open access

Abstract

Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Hook. f. ex K. Shum. is an important timber-tree species in the Peruvian Amazon Basin. As farmers and industry often use wood from young trees, it is important to investigate variation in juvenile wood properties in this species. A provenance/progeny test was established to evaluate genetic variation in growth and wood properties of young trees, the strength of their genetic control as well as their interrelationships both at the genetic and the phenotypic level in different planting zones. In this paper, results are presented for tree height and stem diameter (near ground level) at 16, 28 and 39 months; and stem diameter and basic density of the wood at breast height at 39 months. Significant variation due to provenances and especially due to families within provenances was found in growth and wood density. Phenotypic and genetic correlations indicated that larger trees tended to have denser wood. Wood density had higher heritability than height and diameter; and genetic control over height, diameter and density was generally highest in the planting zone where trees grew most rapidly.

ARNOLD, R. J., I. G. JOHNSON and J. V. OWEN (2004): Genetic variation in growth, stem straightness and wood properties of Eucalyptus dunnii trials in northern New South Wales. Forest Genetics 11: 1-12.

ASTM (1997): Standard test methods for specific gravity of wood and wood-base materials. ASTM D2395-93. In: Annual book of ASTM Standards 4.10. pp. 348-355. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.

BAUCH, J. and O. DÜNISCH (2000): Comparison of growth dynamics and wood characteristics of plantation-grown and primary forest Carapa guianensis in Central Amazonia. IAWA Journal 21: 321-333.

BAWA, K. S., P. S. ASHTON and S. M. NOR (1990): Reproductive ecology of tropical forest plants: management issues, pp. 3-13. In: Reproductive ecology of tropical forest plants, edited by K. S. BAWA and M. HADLEY, UNESCO, Paris.

BECKER, W. A. (1984): Manual of Quantitative Genetics, 4th Edition. Academic Enterprises, Pullman. CAMPBELL, R. K. and F. C. SORENSEN (1978): Effect of test environment on expression of clines and on delimitation of seed zones in Douglas-fir. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 51: 233-246.

CORNELIUS, J., F. MESÉN, E. COREA and M. HENSON (1996): Variation in growth and form of Alnus acuminata Kunth. grown in Costa Rica. Silvae Genetica 45: 24-30.

CORNELIUS, J. P. and J. F. MESÉN (1997): Provenance and family variation in growth rate, stem straightness, and foliar mineral concentration in Vochysia guatemalensis. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27: 1103-1109.

DVORAK, W. S, H. URUENA, L. A. MORENO and H. GOFORTH (1998): Provenance and family variation in Sterculia apetala in Colombia. Forest Ecology and Management 111: 127-135.

FALCONER, D. S. and T. F. C. MACKAY (1996): Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. Addison Wesley Longman Limited, Edinburgh.

GINWAL, H. S., P. KUMAR, V. K. SHARMA, A. K. MANDAL and C. E. HARWOOD (2004): Genetic variability and early growth performance of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. in provenance cum progeny trials in India. Silvae Genetica 53: 148-153.

GREAVES, B. L., N. M. G. BORRALHO, C. A. RAYMOND, R. EVANS and PH. WHITEMAN (1997): Age-age correlations in, and relationships between basic density and growth in Eucalyptus nitens. Silvae Genetica 46: 264-270.

HODGE, G. R., W. S. DVORAK, H. URUEÑA and L. ROSALES (2002): Growth, provenance effects and genetic variation of Bombacopsis quinata in field tests in Venezuela and Colombia. Forest Ecology and Management 158: 273-289.

KEENAN, F. J. and M. TEJADA (1984): Tropical timber for building materials in the Andean Group countries of South America. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.

KHASA, P. D., P. LI, G. VALLÉE, S. MAGNUSSEN and J. BOUSQUET (1995): Early evaluation of Racosperma auriculiforme and R. mangium provenance trials on four sites in Zaire. Forest Ecology and Management 78: 99-113.

LINARES, C., E. MENESES and J. DIAZ (1992): Monografía sobre capirona: Calycophyllum spruceanum. Proyecto Forestal ITTO PD 37/88 Utilización industrial de nuevas especies forestales en el Perú. Cámara Nacional Forestal, Dirección General de Forestal y Fauna, Lima.

MACDONALD, A. C., N. M. G. BORRALHO and B. M. POTTS (1997): Genetic variation for growth and wood density in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus in Tasmania (Australia). Silvae Genetica 46: 236-241.

MIRANDA, I., M. H. ALMEIDA and H. PEREIRA (2001): Provenance and site variation of wood density in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. at harvest age and its relation to a nondestructive early assessment. Forest Ecology and Management 149: 235-240.

MORGENSTERN, E. K. (1996): Geographic Variation in Forest Trees - Genetic Basis and Application of Knowledge in Silviculture. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver.

MOSBRUGGER, V. (1990): The Tree Habit in Land Plants. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, edited by S. BHATTACHARJI, G. M. FRIEDMAN, H. J. NEUGEBAUER and A. SEILACHER. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

NIKLAS, K. J. (1997): Size- and age-dependent variation in the properties of sap- and heartwood in Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.). Annals of Botany 79: 473-478.

OSORIO, L. F. (2004): Provenance results of Gmelina arborea in southwest Colombia at three years of age. New Forests 28: 179-185.

PANSHIN, A. J. and C. DE ZEEUW (1980): Textbook of Wood Technology. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

PINYOPUSARERK, K., J. C. DORAN, E. R. WILLIAMS and P. WASUWANICH (1996): Variation in growth of Eucalyptus camaldulensis provenances in Thailand. Forest Ecology and Management 87: 63-73.

RAYMOND, C. A. and A. MUNERI (2001): Nondestructive sampling of Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens for wood properties. I. Basic density. Wood Science and Technology 35: 27-39.

RAYMOND, C. A. (2002): Genetics of Eucalyptus wood properties. Annals of Forest Science 59: 525-531.

ROCHON, C. (2004): Croissance et densité du bois de sept provenances de Guazuma crinita Mart. dans le bassin de l’Amazonie péruvienne. M.S. thesis, Département des Sciences du Bois et de la Forêt, Université Laval, Québec.

RUSSELL, J. R., J. C. WEBER, A. BOOTH, W. POWELL, C. SOTELO MONTES and I. K. DAWSON (1999): Genetic variation of riverine populations of Calycophyllum spruceanum in the Peruvian Amazon Basin, revealed by AFLP analysis. Molecular Ecology 8: 199-204.

SANTOS, P. E. T., I. O. GERALDI and J. N. GARCIA (2004): Estimates of genetic parameters of wood traits for sawn timber production in Eucalyptus grandis. Genetics and Molecular Biology 27: 567-573.

SAS INSTITUTE INC. (1999): SAS/STAT Users’ Guide, Version 8. SAS Institute Inc., Cary. SEARS, R. R. (2003): New forestry on the floodplain: the ecology and management of Calycophyllum spruceanum (Rubiaceae) on the Amazon landscape. Ph.D. dissertation, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Columbia University, Ithaca.

SHIMIZU, J. Y., L. A. SPENCE, E. G. MARTINS and A. J. DE ARAUJO (2002): Genetic and phenotypic variations in early growth performances of grevillea trees for use in agroforestry systems. International Forestry Review 4: 128-132.

SOTELO MONTES, C. and J. C. WEBER (1997): Priorización de especies arbóreas para sistemas agroforestales en la selva baja del Perú. Agroforestería en las Américas 4: 12-17.

SOTELO MONTES, C., H. VIDAURRE and J. C. WEBER (2003): Variation in stem-growth and branch-wood traits among provenances of Calycophyllum spruceanum Benth. from the Peruvian Amazon. New Forests 26: 1-16.

STEEL, R., J. TORRIE and D. DICKEY (1997): Principles and Procedures of Statistics - a Biometrical Approach, 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill Series in Probability and Statistics, Boston.

TOLEDO, E. and C. RINCÓN (1996): Utilización industrial de nuevas especies forestales en el Perú. Cámara Nacional Forestal, Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales, Organización Internacional de las Maderas Tropicales, Lima.

WEBER, J. C., C. SOTELO MONTES, H. VIDAURRE, I. K. DAWSON and A. J. SIMONS (2001): Participatory domestication of agroforestry trees: an example from the Peruvian Amazon. Development in Practice 11: 425-433.

WEBER, J. C. and C. SOTELO MONTES (2005): Variation and correlations among stem growth and wood traits of Calycophyllum spruceanum Benth. from the Peruvian Amazon. Silvae Genetica 54: 31-41.

WEI, X. and N. M. G. BORRALHO (1997): Genetic control of wood basic density and bark thickness and their relationships with growth traits of Eucalyptus urophylla in south east China. Silvae Genetica 46: 245-250.

WIEMANN, M. C. and G. B. WILLIAMSON (1989): Radial gradients in the specific gravity of wood in some tropical and temperate trees. Forest Science 35: 197-210.

WOODCOCK, D. W. and A. D. SHIER (2002): Wood specific gravity and its radial variations: the many ways to make a tree. Trees 16: 437-443.

ZHANG, S. Y. (1995): Effect of growth rate on wood specific gravity and selected mechanical properties in individual species from distinct wood categories. Wood Science and Technology 29: 451-465.

ZOBEL, B. J. and J. B. JETT (1995): Genetics of Wood Production. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

ZOBEL, B. J. and J. R. SPRAGUE (1998): Juvenile Wood in Forest Trees. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0,741
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0,651

CiteScore 2018: 0.77

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.345
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.362

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 147 96 6
PDF Downloads 84 69 6