Hypodontia and WNT10A mutation: a case report

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Tooth agenesis is common dentofacial malformation in humans. Its etiology is still not clear. Hypodontia has been regarded as a multifactorial condition influenced by gene function, environmental interaction and developmental timing. More than 300 genes have been related with patterning, morphogenesis and cell differentiation in teeth. According to data WNT10A gene is considered to have an important role in odontogonesis. The aim of this study was to show mutation status in WNT10A gene in a family with two members with diagnosis of hypodontia/oligodontia. In the reported family (father, mother, son, daughter) children were diagnosed with congenital tooth agenesis (son-2 teeth, daughter-11 teeth), while parents negated congenital absence of teeth. We identified a heterozygous missense mutation, c.682T>A (p.Phe228Ile) within the exon 3 of WNT10A in mother and father and the same homozygous mutation was detected in the same region of WNT10A gene in daughter and son. Observed differences in our study, from no symptoms to mild/severe hypodontia, could be the consequence of genetic influence of c.682T>A(p.Phe228Ile) mutation, but also the contribution of many environmental factors during odontogenesis.

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