Raising or Lowering?—A Case Study of Alethic ACQ in Chinese and Southeast Asian Languages

Open access

Abstract

The present paper proposes a morphological lowering analysis for the structure associated with alethic ACQ, a postverbal morpheme capable of denoting the modality of ability and possibility in Chinese as well as many Southeast Asian languages. Built in the framework of distributed morphology, we suggest that ACQ is base-generated in a preverbal node as a modal element and lowers to a postverbal position during its derivation on the PF branch. We compare and contrast the proposed lowering account with the other model of analysis, the raising analysis, and demonstrate that the lowering account is superior both conceptually and empirically.

Bai, Ge, Danqing Liu, Fang Wang & Yanjun Fan. 2012. Beijinghua daici “ren” de qianfuzhuihua. [The encliticization of the pronoun “ren” in Beijing speech]. Yuyan Kexue [Linguistic Sciences], 11(4). 377–384.

Bisang, Walter. 1996. Areal typology and grammaticalization: Processes of grammaticalization based on nouns and verbs in East and mainland Southeast Asian languages. Studies in Language 20(3). 519–597.

Boskovic, Zeljko. 2002. Clitics as nonbranching elements and the linear correspondence axiom. Linguistic Inquiry 33. 329–340.

Cao, Zhiyun, Akitani Hiroyuki, Ota Itsuku & Rixin Zhao. 2000. A study of Chuqu subdialect in Wu dialect. Tokyo: Kohbun Syuppan.

Chomsky, Noam. 1993. A minimalist program for linguistic theory. In Kenneth Hale & Samuel J. Keyser (eds.), The View from Building 20: Essays in linguistics in honor of Sylvain Bromberger, 1–52. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [Reprinted in Chomsky (1995b), 167–217.]

Chomsky, Noam. 1995a. Bare phrase structure. In Gert Webelhuth (ed.), Government and binding theory and the minimalist program, 383–439. Oxford: Blackwell.

Chomsky, Noam. 1995b. The minimalist program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Chomsky, Noam. 2001. Derivation by phase. In Michael Kenstowicz (ed.), Ken Hale: A life in language, 1–52. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Chomsky, Noam. 2008. On phases. In Robert Freidin, Carlos Otero & Maria L. Zubizarreta (eds.), Foundational issues in linguistic theory: Essays in honor of Jean-Roger Vergnaud, 133–166. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Cinque, Guglielmo. 1999. Adverbs and functional heads: A cross-linguistic perspective. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dong, Tonghe (Tung T’ung-ho). 1960. Hanyu yinyunxue [Chinese phonology]. Taiwan: Guangwen Shuju.

Embick, David & Rolf Noyer. 2001. Movement operations after syntax. Linguistic Inquiry, 32(4), 555–595.

Embick, David & Rolf Noyer. 2007. Distributed morphology and the syntax/morphology interface. In Gillian Ramchand & Charles Reiss (eds.), The Oxford handbook of linguistic interfaces, 289–324. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Enfield, Nicholas J. 2001. On genetic and areal linguistics in mainland South-East Asia: Parallel polyfunctionality of “acquire.” In Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald & R. M. W. Dixon (eds.), Areal diffusion and genetic inheritance: Problems in comparative linguistics, 255–290. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Enfield, Nicholas J. 2003. Linguistic epidemiology: Semantics and grammar in Mainland South-east Asia. London: Routledge.

Enfield, Nicholas J. 2004. Verbs and multi-verb sequences in Lao. In Anthony Diller, Jerry Edmondson & Yongxian Luo. (eds.), Tai-Kadai languages. London: Routledge.

Halle, Morris & Alec Marantz. 1993. Distributed morphology and the pieces of inflection. In Kenneth Hale & Samuel J. Keyser (eds.), The View from Building 20: Essays in linguistics in honor of Sylvain Bromberger, 111–176. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Halle, Morris & Alec Marantz. 1994. Some key features of distributed morphology. In Andrew Carnie & Heidi Harley (eds.), MIT working papers in linguistics 21: Papers on phonology and morphology, 275–288. Cambridge: MIT Working Papers in Linguistics.

Heine, Bernd & Tania Kuteva. 2003. On contact-induced grammaticalization. Studies in Language 27. 529–72.

Hirata, Shoji. 1997. Xiuning fangyan de dongci weiyuju [Sentences with verbal predicates in Xiuning dialect of Hui Dialect] in Li Rulong & Zhang Shuang-qing (eds.), Dongci Weiyu Ju [Sentences with verbal predicates]. Guangdong: Jinan University Press.

Hopper, Paul. J. & Elizabeth C. Traugott. 1993. Grammaticalization: Cambridge textbooks in linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hornstein, Nobert. 2001. Move! A minimalist theory of construal. Oxford: Blackwell.

Huang, James. 1988. Wo paode kuai and Chinese phrase structure. Language 64(2). 274–311.

Huang, Bairong & Xudong Liao. 1991. Xiandai hanyu [Modern Chinese]. Beijing: Gaodeng Jiaoyu Chubanshe [Higher Education Press].

Lasnik, Howard. 2005. Minimalist investigations in linguistic theory. London: Routledge.

Matthews, Stephen & Virginia Yip. 2009. Contact-induced grammaticalization: Evidence from bilingual acquisition. Studies in Language 33(2), 366–395.

Myler, Neil. 2009. Linearization and post-syntactic operations in the Quechua DP. Cambridge Occasional Papers in Linguistics 5. 46–66.

Ouhalla, Jamal. 1991. Functional categories and parametric variation. London: Routledge.

Pollock, Jean-Yves. 1989. Verb movement, universal grammar and the structure of IP. Linguistic Inquiry 20(3). 365–424.

Radford, Andrew. 2009. An introduction to English sentence structure. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Rizzi, Luigi. 1990. Relativized minimality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Simpson, Andrew. 2001. Focus, presupposition and light predicate raising in East and Southeast Asia. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 10(2). 89–128.

Sybesma, Rint. 2008. Zhuang: A Tai language with some Sinitic characteristics. In Pieter Muysken (ed.), From linguistic areas to areal linguistics. 221–274. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Tang, Sze-Wing. 1998. Parametrization of features in syntax. University of California at Irvine doctoral dissertation.

Wu, Fuxiang. 2002a. Hanyu nengxing shubu jiegou “V de/bu C” de yufahua [The grammaticalization of the alethic verb-complement construction “V de/bu C” in Chinese]. Zhongguo Yuwen [Chinese Language] 1. 29–40.

Wu, Fuxiang. 2002b. Nengxing shubu jiegou suoyi [A tentative study on the alethic verb-complement construction]. Yuyan Jiaoxue Yu Yanjiu [Language Teaching and Research] 5. 19–27.

Wu, Fuxiang. 2003. Nanfang fangyan nengxing shubu jiegou “V de/bu C” dai binyu de yuxu leixing [Types of word order of the alethic verb-complement construction “V de/bu C” in Southern Chinese dialects]. Fangyan [Dialects] 3. 243–254.

Wu, Fuxiang. 2009. Cong “de”-yidong ci dao buzuyu biaoji—dongnanya yuyan de yizhong yufahua quyu [From the verb meaning ‘get, acquire’ to the resultative construction marker: A kind of grammaticalization area in the Southeast Asian languages]. Zhongguo Yuwen [Chinese Language] 3. 195–211.

Xu, Jie. 2012. Cizui shao dan yuzui duo—hanyu yufa tedian de chongxin gaikuo [Less affixes, but more clitics—revisiting Chinese grammatical features]. Huazhong Shifan Daxue Xuebao (Renwen Sheke Ban) [Journal of Huazhong Normal University (Humanities and Social Sciences)] 2. 113–118.

Yang, Ping. 1989. “Dongci + de + binyu” jiegou de chansheng he fazhan [On the origin and development of the structure “verb + de + object”]. Zhongguo Yuwen [Chinese Language] 2.

Yang, Yanhua. 2013. Cizui, Yuzui yu xiandai hanyu yufa tixi [Affixes, clitics and the grammatical system of modern Chinese]. Huazhong Normal University doctoral dissertation.

Yue, Junfa. 1984. Deziju de chansheng he bianhua [On the origin and evolution of sentences with De]. Yuyan Yanjiu [Studies in language and linguistics] 2. 10–30.

Zhuang, Huibin. 2014. The prosodic history of Chinese resultatives. Language and Linguistics 15(4). 575–595.

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1007 1002 13
PDF Downloads 97 97 4