Nowadays, different levels of stress and nervousness can be found in organizations. Owing to the fact that employees spend most of their time in organizations, stress may affect the health of employees. Hence, study of stress and the factors that make stress can be a viable decision in that by eliminating these factors organizations can have healthier employees. This study is a correlation study which aims to determine the possible relationship between toxic leadership and job stress. Data collection tools including two standard questionnaires were used. The questionnaire adopted from toxic leadership (Schmidt and Hanges 2009) to measure the toxic leadership in organizations and the NIOSH Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (Hurrell and McLaney 1988) to measure the job stress. In order to analyze the data SPSS software was used. Results show that there is a significant direct relationship between toxic leadership and the job stress of employees. In other words, the more toxic leadership perceived by employees, the more job stress they feel.
Ahsan, N., Z. Abdullah, D. G. Fie and S. S. Alam (2009). “A study of job stress on job satisfaction among university staff in Malaysia: Empirical study.” European journal of social sciences 8(1): 121-131.
Conger, J. A. (1999). “Charismatic and transformational leadership in organizations: An insider’s perspective on these developing streams of research.” The Leadership Quarterly 10(2): 145-179.
Cooper, D. (2006). “Knowledge workers.” Canadian Business 79(20): 59.
Frese, M. and D. Zapf (1994). “Methodological issues in the study of work stress: Objective vs subjective measurement of work stress and the question of longitudinal studies”.
Haratani, T., N. Kawakami and S. Araki (1993). “Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of NIOSH Generic Job Stress Questionnaire.” Jpn J Ind Health 35: S214.
Heppell, T. (2011). “Toxic leadership: Applying the Lipman-Blumen model to political leadership.” Representation 47(3): 241-249.
Hoogendoorn, W., P. Bongers, H. De Vet, G. Ariens, W. Van Mechelen and L. Bouter (2002). “High physical work load and low job satisfaction increase the risk of sickness absence due to low back pain: results of a prospective cohort study.” Occupational and environmental medicine 59(5): 323-328.
Hurrell, J. J. and M. A. McLaney (1988”. (Exposure to job stress: A new psychometric instrument.” Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health.
Magnavita, N. (2000). “Industrial mass psychogenic illness: The unfashionable diagnosis.” British journal of medical psychology 73(3): 371-375.
Möller, J., T. Theorell, U. De Faire, A. Ahlbom and J. Hallqvist (2005). “Work related stressful life events and the risk of myocardial infarction. Case-control and case-crossover analyses within the Stockholm heart epidemiology programme (SHEEP).” Journal of epidemiology and community health 59(1): 23-30.
Norito K, T. H. (1999). “Epidemiology of job stress and Health in Japan; Review of current evidence and future direction. J Industrial Health.” 37:174-86.
Padilla, A., R. Hogan and R. B. Kaiser (2007”. (The toxic triangle: Destructive leaders, susceptible followers, and conducive environments.” The Leadership Quarterly 18(3): 176-194.
Pelletier, K. L. (2009). The effects of favored status and identification with victim on perceptions of and reactions to leader toxicity, Claremont Graduate University.
Pyöriä, P. (2005). “The concept of knowledge work revisited.” Journal of Knowledge Management 9(3): 116-127.
Reinhardt, W., B. Schmidt, P. Sloep and H. Drachsler (2011). “Knowledge worker roles and actions—results of two empirical studies.” Knowledge and Process Management 18(3): 150-174.
Roter, A. B. (2011). The lived experiences of registered nurses exposed to toxic leadership behaviors, CAPELLA UNIVERSITY.
Schmidt, A. and P. Hanges (2009). My boss is killing me! Developing and validating a measure of toxic leadership. Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Conference, New Orleans, LA.
Schmidt, A. A. (2014). “An examination of toxic leadership, job outcomes, and the impact of military deployment”, University of Maryland.
Shahid, M. N., K. Latif, N. Sohail and M. A. Ashraf (2011). “Work stress and employee performance in banking sector evidence from district Faisalabad, Pakistan.” Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences 1(7): 38-47.
Spigelman, A. D. and P. Dwyer (2004). “Is there a link between work-related stress and colorectal cancer?” Medical journal of Australia 180(7): 339-340.