Prevalence and determinants of depression and its association with quality of life in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) patients

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Abstract

Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability. Assessment and treatment of TBI typically focus on physical and cognitive impairments, yet psychological impairments represent significant causes of disability. Depression may be the most common and disabling psychiatric condition in individuals with TBI.

Objective: This cross-sectional study was design to investigate prevalence and risk factors of depression in Traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Material and method: The Group studied consists of 204 patients of mild and moderate TBI between 14-days to one-year post injury. Demographic characteristics of the participants were assessed on a self-designed semi structured performa. Interviews focused on assessment of severity of TBI, depression and quality of life (Qol) using GCS, PHQ-9 and WHOBREF-QOL respectively.

Results: Total 204 patients were included. 42.15% participants were found to have depression. None of the demographic variables were associated with depression except female sex, severity and time since injury. Moderate TBI patient (55.80%) had significantly higher occurrence of depression than the mild cases (44.2%). Patients with lesser duration (time since injury) of TBI had high incidence (50.2%) of depression compare to longer duration of TBI. Depressed patients also had poor Qol than those without depression in all domains except physical health domain. Neuroanatomical localization was also correlated with depression. Cerebral contusions were the most common (44.24%) lesions associated with depression.

Conclusion: Depression is commonly associated, yet under diagnosed clinical entities in head injury and have tremendous impact in overall outcome measures. Every patient of head injury warrants psychiatric evaluation and concomitant treatment if required to ensure the attainment of not only neuroanatomical intact but overall productive and qualitative life vindicating the holistic and multidisciplinary treatment approach.

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