Oxidative stress-related pathophysiology in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps: research challenges

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Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is considered a multifactorial pathology with negative impact on the quality of life and considerable socio-economic effects. The pathogenesis of CRSwNP has not yet been fully elucidated despite remarkable studies in this field. This limits the pathogenic treatment and, therefore, the pathological process is expressed by a greater tendency of recurrence. Patients with recurrent CRSwNP remain in a severe state and therapeutically uncontrolled. In recent studies, the involvement of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP has been more frequently mentioned. CRSwNP is considered a response of the sinonasal tissue on the inflammatory state, associated with OS and production of reactive oxygen species, causing injury to sinonasal tissues. It was demonstrated that the amount of ROS in the nasal polyp tissue corresponds to the severity of CRSwNP.

A literature review on the role of OS in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP was undertaken. The relevant information was identified using a search of electronic databases. Keywords used to highlight relevant papers were a combination of “chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps” and “oxidative stress”.

This review demonstrates that there is a strong relationship between OS and CRSwNP pathogenesis. It is hypothesized that antioxidants may have a preventive role in CRSwNP. Nevertheless, additional research is required to further evaluate the effectiveness of antioxidant therapy.

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